Tuesday, May 31, 2016

26 May 2016 - Two Years of Modi Government - Progress Card

India Today Special: Modi Government Report Card After 2 Years | Part 1

India Today

Modi Government Report Card After 2 Years | Part 2


Special PIB Website on 2 Years of NDA Rule




Updated 31 May 2016, 26 May 2016

Friday, May 27, 2016

Hindu Religious Rituals - Are Changes Required?

It is interesting to note that Sociology says most of the present day practices of societies are functional. They came into existence to serve some purpose of the society. Even Vedas, the foundation of all knowledge of Hinduism have functional utility for the society. As society evolves, certain practices may not give the benefits which they were giving earlier and hence get modified. Many such changes occurred in Hinduism.

I am looking at two issues first.  One the cost involved in rituals. Two, the cleanliness involved in the rituals. Should Hindu religious leaders have a fresh look at these two issues and modify the rituals.

Regarding cost aspect, the after death rituals are costing a cool packet coming to around  Rs.30,000 to 50,000 for a middle class family. Normally, the medical expenses are also involved in the period before. Is such an expense required? Will it not strain the family members unnecessarily? Already education is so much commercialised in this country that people are now forced to spend lakhs of rupees even at high school level. Should religious leaders say, religion also requires expenditure, so strain yourself and spend? You are paying taxes to government, incurring various expenses for unwarranted things and services under the spell of advertisment. You should pay to the religious establishment also. Should it be the line of religious leaders?

Rituals after death: Vinayak Damodar Savarkar said just dispose my dead body. No further rituals are required. Is there a need for making daan after death of a persons. Will it give punya to him? After punya is earned by the man by his deed during his life time. Why trouble people already troubled by death of a family member for more expenses?

Gift of clothes:  Are people having  trouble to clothe themselves? Why insist on compulsory gifts of clothes on various occasions? Already marriage of a girl is made costly by various customs and rituals connected to the bridegroom's family which they demand as right? Why expenses on bride's family also. Probably these are vestiges of a society that lived on agricultural land. Basically the customs of rich people are foisted upon poor people. In modern days where boy and girl work and earn income, the customs need change. But religious leaders are not taking enough interest in changing and moulding social customs. They and their followers are more concerned with using imaginary powers to increase their wealth further or punya with rituals. If present religious leaders do not take interest in social affairs, the vacuum will be filled by others.

Purohit system: Purohit system is an established practice that can be used by religious leaders, social leaders, and government for changing the culture of people. But there does not seem to be a good system in place to provide inputs to purohits in the modern practices that help to increase welfare of families, villages and towns. Purohit system is a stable system even now and it has to be used imaginatively so that it genuinely contributes to the progress of the family and society.

While Hindu religion emphasizes cleanliness in general, the present scientific practices of cleanliness have advanced and the religious practices have lagged behind. There is a need to have fresh look at some of the practices that only trouble a person's stomach and chest. Modification of such rituals to incorporate scientific cleanliness is warranted. The psychological satisfaction of a person should not lead to physical debility.

Readers are requested to give their comments.

Shodasha Samskars


Updated 27 May 2016,  25 Jan 2012

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

100 Smart Cities Project of India - Plans and Programmes

Know About World Smart Cities

http://www.worldsmartcity.org/  16 July 2016 World Smartcity Forum

Four Main Themes of the Forum
Transportation/Mobility for smart cities  http://www.worldsmartcity.org/category/mobility/
Water for smart cities  http://www.worldsmartcity.org/category/water/
Energy for smart cities
Cybersecurity and privacy for smart cities

World's Smart Cities: San Diego


Top 10 Smart Cities - 2014 - IESE Rankings  http://www.ieseinsight.com/doc.aspx?id=1582

13 new smart cities announced by govt
24 May 2016

Lucknow, New Town in Kolkata, Bhagalpur,  Dharamsala, Chandigarh, Faridabad, Raipur, Ranchi, Warangal, Agartala, Imphal, Port Blair and Panaji


Smart cities - Critical voices

28 Jan 2016

First batch of 20 smart cities today.

Bhubaneswar, NDMC Delhi,
Pune, Jaipur, Surat, Kochi, Ahmedabad, Jabalpur, Visakhapatnam, Solapur, Davanagere, Indore, Coimbatore, Kakinada, Belagavi, Udaipur, Guwahati, Chennai, Ludhiana and Bhopal

September 2015

98 cities were identified for 100 Smart Cities Project. Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir have to pick up one each soon to touch 100 cities mark.
The announcement of future smart cities list is raising hope.  Development, especially roads and highways, would have a multiplier effect and boost rural jobs. Experts say the infrastructure is the backbone of the smart city mission which is all set to get boost due to these developments.

            The list of cities includes Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Ghaziabad, Bareilly and Agra from Uttar Pradesh, Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Salem, Vellore, Chennai, Coimbatore and Madurai from Tamil Nadu, Nashik, Thane, Solapur, Nagpur, Navi Mumbai, Aurangabad and Pune from Maharashtra, and Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur, Gwalior and Ujjain from Madhya Pradesh. It also encompasses Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar and Baroda in Gujarat, and Bhagalpur and Muzaffarpur in Bihar.

            Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have the maximum number of 12 cities under the list followed by Maharashtra with 10, Madhya Pradesh with seven, Karnataka and Gujarat with six each, Rajasthan with four, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab with three each. Of those chosen for the project, 24 are capital cities, as many business hubs and 18 cultural centers.

             Eight smart cities nominees have a population of one lakh and below, while 35 cities and towns between one to five lakh. There are 21 cities, with a population ranging between five to 10 lakh, 28 cities above 10 lakh and below 25 lakh. A set of five cities are in the population range of 25 to50 lakh.

            Four cities- Chennai, Greater Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Greater Mumbai-have population of above 50 lakh. Population statistics suggest that 64 towns and cities are in the category of small to medium, while the remaining 34 are large ones.

            The Government will release Rs 2 crore for each of the 98 cities for preparation of smart city plans. The region-wise panels of reputed agencies for assisting smart cities aspirants for preparation of smart city plans have been formed by the urban ministry. In the second stage of the city challenge competition, all smart city plans received by the Urban Development ministry will be evaluated, based on a set of six broad criteria. The top scoring 20 cities in the first round of competition in the second stage will be chosen for financing during this financial year. The remaining will be asked to address the deficiencies identified before participating in the second and the third rounds of competition. Forty cities each will be identified for financing during the second and third rounds.

            The Central government proposes to give financial support to Mission to the extent of Rs 48,000 crore over five years. The chosen smart city will be given Rs 100 crore per city per year over the next five years. Accordingly, the Central government has made a provision of Rs 48000 crore for the next five years for the smart cities mission. The States/UTs and Urban local bodies have to make an equal matching contribution. This in effect means that Central and state governments and ULBs will invest about Rs 1 lakh crore over the next five years for making 100 chosen cities smart.

            Smart city plans will be implemented by a special purpose vehicle to be set up for each identified city to enable a focused effort for effective implementation.
            Urban population, according to 2011 census, was about 37 crore accounting for 31 per cent of total population. The cities also generate 63% of the nation’s economic activity. These numbers are rapidly increasing, with almost half of India’s population projected to live in its cities by 2030.

 AMRUT Project        

            A statutory town is one that has a municipal body. There are 4,041 statutory cities/ town as per 2011 records. Out of these, about 500 cities with a population of above one lakh each, are focus of AMRUT. These 500 cities account for 73 per cent of India’s urban population. Number of cities that can be nominated for AMRUT so far are like this : A&N ( 1), Andhra Pradesh (31), Arunachal Pradesh (1 ),  Assam(7), Delhi( 1), Karnataka( 27), Kerala( 18), Uttar Pradesh (54), WB (28) Maharashtra ( 37), Bihar ( 27), Jharkhand(11) etc.

             AMRUT, entailing an investment of Rs50,000 crore, envisages proper infrastructure services relating to water supply, sewerage, seepage management, storm water drains, transport and development of green spaces and parks with special plans of meeting needs of children.      
            A reform matrix with timelines will be circulated to states in the guidelines.  JNNURM projects relating to the urban development sanctioned during 2005-2012 and achieved physical progress of fifty per cent availing 50 per cent central assistance released and those sanctioned during 2012-2014 will be supported till March 2017. Accordingly, 102 and 296 projects will get central support for balance funding to complete these projects.

More information



India - Smart City - Concept

A Smart City to be developed as a well planned city is a sustainable business and residential area of 2 to 10 lakh population.

For  its sustainability, a smart city needs to offer economic activities and employment opportunities
to a wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of education, skills or income levels. In planning a smart city, planners  need to identify  comparative or unique advantage and core competence in specific areas of economic activities and  have to develop the required institutional, physical, social and economic infrastructures for it and promote those features and their benefits to
attract investors and professionals to take up those economic activities. It also needs to support
the required skill development for such activities in a big way. This would help a Smart
City in developing the required environment for creation of economic activities and
employment opportunities.

Apart from employment, it is also important for a Smart City to offer decent living options to every resident. This would mean that it will have to provide a very high quality of life (comparable with any developed European City) i.e. good quality but affordable housing, cost efficient physical, social and institutional infrastructure such as adequate and quality water supply, sanitation, 24 x 7 electric supply, clean air, quality education, cost efficient health care, dependable security, entertainment, sports, robust and high speed interconnectivity, fast & efficient urban mobility etc.

Smart Cities have to attract investments and experts & professionals. Good quality infrastructure, simple and transparent online business and public services processes that make it easy to practice one’s profession or to establish an enterprise and run it efficiently without any bureaucratic hassles are essential features of a citizen centric and investor-friendly smart city. Adequate availability of the required skills in the labour force is a necessary requirement for sustainability of a Smart City. Entrepreneurs, themselves, look for a decent living and so they also look for smart housing, high level of healthcare, entertainment and quality education. Safety and security is a basic need for them as to any other resident. A city that is considered unsafe is not attractive. Besides an entrepreneur or a professional needs to be there as someone who helps a city to prosper and adds value to it rather than
someone who only benefits from it.

Smart City will have:

 Competitiveness: It refers to a city’s ability to create employment opportunities, attract investments, experts, professionals and people. The ease of being able to do business and the quality of life it offers determines its competitiveness.
 Sustainability: It includes social sustainability, environmental sustainability and financial sustainability.
 Quality of Life: It includes safety and security, inclusiveness, entertainment, ease of seeking and obtaining public services, cost efficient healthcare, quality education, transparency, accountability and opportunities for participation in governance.

Pillars of a Smart City

 Institutional Infrastructure (including Governance), Physical Infrastructure, Social Infrastructure and Economic Infrastructure constitute the four pillars on which a city rests. The centre of attention for each of these pillars is the citizen. In other words a Smart City works towards ensuring the best
for its entire people, regardless of social status, age, income levels, gender, etc.

 Institutional Infrastructure refers to the activities that relate to governance,
planning and management of a city. The new technology (ICT) has provided a new
dimension to this system making it citizen-centric, efficient, accountable and
transparent. It includes the participatory systems of governance, e-governance,
inclusive governance, the sense of safety and security and the opportunities for

 Physical Infrastructure refers to its stock of cost-efficient and intelligent
physical infrastructure such as the urban mobility system, the housing stock, the
energy system, the water supply system, sewerage system, sanitation facilities,
solid waste management system, drainage system, etc. which are all integrated
through the use of technology.

 Social Infrastructure relate to those components that work towards developing
the human and social capital, such as the education, healthcare, entertainment, etc.
It also includes performance and creative arts, sports, the open spaces, children’s
parks and gardens.

These together determine the quality of life of citizens in a city. It is also
necessary that city promotes inclusiveness and city has structures which
proactively bring disadvantageous sections i.e. SCs, STs, socially and financially
backwards, minorities, disabled and women into the mainstream of development.

 Economic Infrastructure
For a city to attract investments and to create the appropriate economic
infrastructurefor employment opportunities, it has to first identify its core
competence, comparative advantages and analyse its potential for generating
economic activities. Once that is done, the gaps in required economic
infrastructure can be determined. This would generally comprise the following:
 Incubation centres
 Skill Development Centres
 Industrial Parks and Export Processing Zones
 IT / BT Parks
 Trade centers
 Service Centres
 Financial Centers and Services
 Logistics hubs, warehousing and freight terminals
 Mentoring and Counselling services

Physical Infrastructure
Urban Mobility
Our existing  cities are witnessing rapid motorization. This has led to severe congestion,
deteriorating air quality, increasing incidence of road accidents and a rapidly increasing
energy bill. Walking and cycling have been rendered unsafe due to poor infrastructure and
public transport has been inadequate. Urban living is making having the personal motor vehicle essential. Public transport systems have been planned in isolation with the result that a well-integrated multi-modal system has not come up. This has resulted in high cost facilities not giving the outcomes that were sought.

Ease of being able to move from one place to another is at the core of a “Smart
City”. Seoul, Singapore, Yokohama and Barcelona (all considered Smart Cities) have a
sound transport system as the core of their “Smartness”. The smart transport system
emphasizes walking, cycling and public transport as the primary means for mobility with
personal motor vehicles being actively discouraged. In fact, smart cities lay considerable
emphasis on the walkability and cycling in the city. The pedestrian is given a place of
prominence as every trip has a leg that involves walking. However, smart city need to look
into the bottlenecks of road/rail networks also and wherever required underpasses,
elevated roads, additional rail networks need to be put in place urgently.

Cycling is one of the, most cost efficient and environmentally sustainable mode for
commuting in cities. Many cities across the world have given emphasis to it and developed
the required infrastructure for promoting cycling. Also programs like bicycle sharing such
as Velib in Paris can be promoted to decongest the CBDs.

If cities are to be efficient engines of economic growth, it is important that goods
are able to move from production centres to consumption centres at low cost and high
speed. Therefore, a good freight movement system acquires importance.
Hence, improved mobility will involve a three pronged approach whereby there are:
1. Improvements in public transport – Metro Rail, BRT, LRT, Monorail, Trams etc.
2. Improvements in infrastructure of other motor vehicles – ring roads, bypasses,
underpasses, elevated roads, improvements in the existing road ways
3. Improvements in infrastructure for walking, cycling and waterways

Reliable Utility Services
 Reliable, adequate and high quality Utility services are critical in a Smart City.
Whether it is electricity or telephony or ICT services, they need to be very reliable and
adequate. 24x7 services are necessary. For example, a minimum of 100 Mbps of internet
bandwidth and wide availability of Wi-Fi will be very important features. It should be the
right of every citizen to get these facilities on demand. Similarly, municipal services such
water supply, drainage, solid waste management need to be of very high quality and
available 24x7. Telephone services based on Direct-to-Home Fibre should be available for
every household. A Smart City cannot have only a few hours of water supply a day or
electricity that goes off for several hours or the streets littered with garbage. The
general appearance of the city has to be pleasing and clean. The main utilities that need
to ensured are the following:

Water Supply
Safe and adequate water supply is a public good as it has very large positive
externalities. Access to water supply is important for all the urban residents and lack of
safe water supply can keep the mortality rates high in general and among the poor in
particular. It has been estimated that access to water increases the productive working
hours of urban poor in general and the poor women in particular by 1.5 to 2 hours. Smart
cities should therefore have adequate availability of piped water supply that also meets
benchmarks of water quality, pressure, etc. across the city. Dual water supply systems
that serve the needs of drinking water and other needs would help in recycling water and
conserving it. Adoption of new methods especially smart metering for reducing loss and
energy consumption in water networks needs to be ensured. This is possible by installing
sensors in the supply system that measure water consumption, water levels, and water
flow rates on a real time basis. These models will help in not only identifying and localize
leaks, it would also assist to optimize energy consumption in the network. In addition,
smart water meters may be installed for measuring water consumption more efficiently
and providing water customers with data to help them monitor their water usage and
reduce costs.

Sanitation is important for all the urban residents. Lack of sanitation causes
outbreaks of epidemics, health disorders and keeps the mortality rates high in general
and among the poor in particular. It is well known that higher incidences of morbidity
pushes low income households below the poverty line. It is therefore essential that cities
should have a City Wide Sanitation Plan for all parts of the city. The Plan is expected to
be based on the concept of Decentralized Sewerage and Solid Waste Management
System. Also, each and every household should have a toilet so that no citizen needs to
defecate in the open. Further, all commercial and other public buildings should have clean
and hygienic toilets. There is a need for 100% recycling in the sanitation system. Idea is
that not even a drop of waste water should go out of the local area (one such example of
New Moti Bagh Township in New Delhi). Moreover, only treated water should get into
water body i.e. lake, pond, river etc.

Internet and Telephone
A 100 Mbps internet backbone coupled with 100% coverage of the area by cell
phone towers and a high level of telephone penetration will be essential in a Smart City as
most services will have to be offered online. Local service providers should also have
multiple service kiosks that can be accessed by people for evaluating public services and
accessing public information. Fibre Optic connectivity to each home, Wi-Fi in all public
places and educational institutions would be important features of a Smart City. This
would need a transparent and efficient system of providing Right of Way by Municipal




Updated 24 May 2016, 9 Feb 2016,  28 Jan 2016,   24 Sep,   5 May 2015

Panchayat and Municipal Governments in India - Functions and Finances

If we accept the data mechanically, as done by Govind Rao (2001, pp.12-13), all ULBs would be found to incur in 1997-98 an expenditure of over Rs.151308 crore while all PRIs spend about Rs.20931 crore, suggesting that all local bodies spend roughly Rs.172239 crore (which would be more than half the revenue expenditure of the Union Government of India). Based on this database,
M.G. Rao (2001, pp.12-13) wished us to believe that the total expenditure of all governments
put together spent in a sum equivalent to 34.8 percent of the GSDP (GDP?) while revenue
collection and accrual stood at 18.3 percent and 19.8 percent respectively! He also tries to
make us believe that the three levels of the government were spending almost equal amounts

Rao, M. Govind (2001) Fiscal Decentralisation in Indian Federalism, Working Paper 98,
Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore.

Interesting Paper with good amount of information on the topic

Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi
Presented in the National Seminar on Municipal Finances to be held on December 29-30,
2003 by the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi under the auspices of the
Twelfth Finance Commission.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

India to be the third largest economy in the world

India may be third largest economy after 2030: UK think tank Centre for Economics Business and Research (CEBR)

Dec 27, 2015

India May Be 3rd Largest Economy After 2030: Study

India's projected GDP in 2030 was $10,133 billion


Top 10 world economies in 2030 

India to be world’s third largest economy by 2030: US study Jun 25, 2015

In the macroeconomic projections for 2030 by the US Department of Agriculture,  in the next 15 years, India is believed to rise up the rankings and for the first time, enter the top three to become the third largest economy in the world.


India displaces Japan to become third-largest world economy in terms of PPP: World Bank
Apr 30, 2014


India to be the third largest economy in the world by Year 2043

17 February 2014 (PIB Note)

While   presenting    the  Interim   Budget    2014-15,   the   Union   Finance  Minister Shri P Chidambaram said that in the next three decades India will become the third largest economy behind USA and China.

The Finance Minister Mr. P. Chidambaram announced ten policies or tasks that his Government intends to pursue to achieve the goal of becoming the world's largest economy.

i.                    Fiscal Consolidation: A target of fiscal deficit of 3 percent of GDP must be achieved by 2016-17  and must always be kept below that level.

ii.                  Current Account Deficit: Since the economy will run a Current Account Deficit every year for some more years, it can be financed only by foreign investment, whether it is FDI or FII or ECB or any other kind of foreign inflow. Therefore, foreign investment must be encouraged.

iii.                Price Stability and Growth:  In a developing economy where the aim is high growth, a moderate level of inflation will have to be accepted.  RBI must strike a balance between price stability and growth while formulating monetary policy.

iv.        Financial Sector Reforms:  The recommendations of the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission must be implemented immediately as they do not require any change in legislation.  Also, a timetable must be drawn for other recommendations that require  legislation.

v.         Infrastructure:  The country must rebuild its infrastructure and add a huge quantity of new infrastructure.  Every proven model must be adopted but the  PPP model must be more widely used.  New financing structures must be created for long term funds and pooling of investments.

vi.          Manufacturing:  The Government  must focus on manufacturing and especially on manufacturing for export.  The Minister  proposed  that all taxes, Central and State, that go into an exported product should be waived or rebated.  He also proposed that there should be a minimum tariff protection so that there is an incentive to manufacture goods in India rather than import them into India.

vii.     Subsidies:  Given the limited resources, and the many claims on the resources, the Government must choose the subsidies that are absolutely necessary and give them only to the absolutely deserving.

viii.  Urbanisation:  The country’s cities will become ungovernable, and perhaps unliveable, if attention is not paid  to  the decay in these cities.  Cities have wealth and also create wealth.  But that wealth should be tapped for resources to rebuild the cities with a new model of governance.

ix.    Skill Development:  Skill development must rank alongside secondary education, university education, total sanitation and universal health care in the priorities of the Government.

x.         Sharing responsibility between States and Centre:  States have the fiscal space to bear a reasonable proportion of the financial costs of implementing flagship programmes and must willingly do so, so that the Central Government can allocate more resources for subjects such as defence, railways national highways and telecommunications that are its exclusive responsibility.


India 2039: An Affluent Society in One Generation

Harinder S Kohli, Anil Sood
SAGE Publications India, 20-Jan-2010 - 300 pages

Updated  18 May 2016,  15 Dec 2014

Sunday, May 15, 2016

Achievements of India in Science, Engineering and Technology - 2016

15 May 2016
Indian Railways goes green as solar-powered train set for trial

Indian Railways’ First Solar Train Prototype Unveiled in Jodhpur

A Book Published by Institution of Engineers, India

Achievement of Engineering in India in New Milennium


September 2015

15 September - Engineers' Day in India

IIT-B - 10-inch netbook  costing less than $100
700g - Equipped with a 1GHz dual core processor, 1GB of memory and 8GB Nand Flash - Wifi enabled.

April 2015

State of the art Scorpene submarine which has superior stealth and has precision guided weapons was undocked on 6 April 2015 by Defence Minister Manohar Parikkar at Mazagon Dock Limited.  MDL has to make five more of these submarines.

January 2015

The 50-tonne inter-continental ballistic missile, Agni-V capable going up to 5000 Km, the country's first such missile, was tested for the first time in a canisterised version. This was the third test-firing of the three-stage missile but first time in canister version.

India's first successful double hand transplant

Indian doctors have registered a rare feat by conducting India's first successful double hand transplant in a 16-hour-long surgery.
It was conducted at Amrita Institute of Medical Science in Kochi on a 30-year-old train accident victim, who received both hands of a 24-year-old road accident victim.

This transplant has put the Indian scientific community among the league of a few developed nations in the field of composite tissue allotransplant.
Only 110 successful hand transplants have been conducted so far in the US, European countries, China and Australia.

The entire expenses for the transplant were borne by the Mata Amritanandamayi Math.

BMC Engineers repaired giant sewage pump check valve giving the ability to repair valves and prolong their life for some more years saving crores of rupees.
News reported in Mumbai Mirror, 7 January 2015
Reported by  Chaitanya.Mapakwar@timesgroup.com

Aurobindo Pharma and Lupin got FDA, USA approval for Valsartan

Aurobindo Pharma on Tuesday announced that the company has received final approval from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration to manufacture and market Valsartan Tablets USP, 40mg, 80mg, 160mg and 320mg (ANDA 202223).

Valsartan Tablets are the generic equivalent to Novartis' Diovan Tablets, which is indicated for the treatment of hypertension to lower blood pressure. The product has a market size of approximately $2 billion for the 12 months ending October 2014, according to IMS.

January 06, 2015: Pharma Major Lupin Limited announced today that its US subsidiary, Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc. (collectively Lupin) has launched its Valsartan Tablets USP, 40 mg, 80 mg, 160 mg and 320 mg, the generic for Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation’s (Novartis) Diovan® Tablets 40 mg, 80 mg, 160 mg and 320 mg strengths, having received final approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Lupin's Valsartan Tablets 40 mg, 80 mg, 160 mg and 320 mg are the AB rated generic equivalent of Novartis’s Diovan® Tablets and is indicated for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
Diovan® Tablets had annual U.S sales of US$ 2.08 billion (IMS MAT September, 2014).

Updated 26 Mar 2016, 12 Sep 2015

Sunday, May 8, 2016

#WeRequestModiGovt - Twitter Hashtag 8 May 2016

The tag is trending on 8 May 2016 with 13.6K tweets.


#WeRequestModiGovt Every MP has to present investment plan for Rs.10,000 cr in his constituency. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUn4JmyWHPU

#WeRequestModiGovt  Start one PSU in every state with Rs. 1000 crore. It will be good Make in India initiative.  http://guide-india.blogspot.in/2014/09/make-in-india-campaign-by-prime-minster.html

#WeRequestModiGovt  Investment in security has to increase in proportion to increase in Foreign investment.

Prakhar Mehta ‏@prakharrulzz
When r we going to follow #indaFirst approach ?

Jhankrit Soni ‏@jhankritsoni17  4m4 minutes ago
Improvisation in food stock management in FCI godowns. Every year thousand tonnes of grain went down the drain

Allah Raka Rahman ‏@God_Rahman  May 8
#WeRequestModiGovt not to forget their promises

Vikram Hans ‏@vh_vikram  May 8
#WeRequestModiGovt toRectify Lack of Nationwide Adequate Govt Downstream WasteDisposal/Treatment Facilities,Bottleneck in CleanIndiaMission

@ImManishSingh ‏@lovesonuu  May 8
To connect all the river to solve the problem of drought flood and many more #WeRequestModiGovt

Aditya ‏@lethalw2010  May 8
1) Appoint people of integrity in probe/judiciary
2) Speed up all corruption cases: Set up deadlines
3) Review RTE ACT

Aditya ‏@lethalw2010  May 8
4) Review economic reforms
5) Review depts lagging behind
6) stop govt interference in temples
7) Review promises made

Raju Kandari ‏@rajesh4868  May 8
#WeRequestModiGovt to support the Defense research to boost the #MakeInIndia.

Avinash ‏@avinash_mailme  May 8
#WeRequestModiGovt to teach govt Babu's in every department to respect public, and teach them public are masters and they r only servants

Make in India - Campaign - by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi

Updated Information on Various Manufacturing Industries - Opportunities in India

Air Crafts and Airports - Automobiles - Automobile components - Biotechnology
Chemicals  - Construction
Electrical Machinery - Electronic items
Renewable Energy Equipment and Power Projects


Follow Twitter Hash Tag Make in India

8 May  2016

#WeRequestModiGovt  Start one PSU in every state with Rs. 1000 crore. It will be good Make in India initiative.  http://guide-india.blogspot.in/2014/09/make-in-india-campaign-by-prime-minster.html

13 February 2016

Prime Minister’s Speech at Inauguration of Make in India Week, Mumbai

Bharatiya Janata Party upload

Full text of   Prime Minister’s Speech at Inauguration of Make in India Week, Mumbai

5 January 2016

PM interacted with Global Oil and Gas experts about Indian issues

30 October 2015
Once a month, Modi steps in to get stalled projects rolling

25 Sep 2015
Make in India - One Year Report Card

24 Sep 2015
PM Narendra Modi's Round Table Meeting with Financial Sector CEOs of American on 24 Sep 2015

Making a strong pitch for increased investment in various sectors in India, the Prime Minister outlined his vision for “Start-Up India, Stand-Up India.” He said that along with the public sector and private sector, he was laying emphasis to individual start-ups and entrepreneurs – whom he referred to as the “personal sector.” He said start-ups and innovation had been at the heart of the IT revolution.

The Prime Minister mentioned some specific sectors where there was great scope for innovative solutions in India, including insurance products for the agriculture sector and the health sector. He mentioned defence manufacturing, electronic goods manufacturing, renewable energy equipment, railways and metros, Clean India and Digital India as sectors where immense potential existed for investment. He said 50 million new houses by 2022, broadband connectivity for 600,000 villages, doubling of railway capacity and 175 Gigawatts of renewable energy generation were some of the concrete targets his Government had set, which created huge investment opportunities.

Finance Minister Arun Jaitley's address at India Economic Convention 17 Sep 2015



Prime Minister addresses number of meetings and meets number of industrialists promoting Make in India Campaign in West Germany in April 2015.

He stated with conviction in Germany:

Make in India is not a brand. Nor is it simply a slogan on a smart lion! It is a new national movement

And, it covers the whole spectrum of our government, society and business. To this informed audience, I hardly need to state the obvious: Our scale of transformation is vast; therefore, the opportunities we offer are huge. 

Picture source: http://pib.nic.in/photo/2015/Apr/l2015041364251.jpg
The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi and the German Chancellor, Ms. Angela Merkel at the Joint Inauguration of the India Pavilion and the Joint Walk-About Make in India, in Hannover, Germany on April 13, 2015. The Minister of State for Commerce & Industry (Independent Charge), Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman is also seen.
PM Naredra Modi's Speeches in Germany - April 2015

Updated Information on Various Manufacturing Industries - Opportunities in India

Air Crafts and Airports - Automobiles - Automobile components - Biotechnology
Chemicals  - Construction
Electrical MachineryElectronic items
Renewable Energy Equipment and Power Projects

For every industry sector, the latest vision statements of Government as well as private organizations are being collected and included for facilitating assessment of demand for various products related to the industry. While entrepreneurs set up the production and service facilities, many intellectuals have to analyze the data and information to come out with favourable conclusions to give that confidence to the entrepreneurs that projects will have expected profit. Make in India needs the support of every Indian.  Politician - Government employee - Pubic sector employee - Scientist - Engineer and Technologist - Banker - Journalist - Teacher - Professor - Businessman - Student - Private sector employee - Wholesaler - Retailer -Media person - NGO


Shri Narendra Modi in his independence day address on 15 August 2014 gave a call for Make in India to all entrepreneurs of the world.

The campaign is going to be more formally launched on 25 September 2014 by the Prime Minister in New Delhi along with functions in various states.

Make in India Campaign Programme on 25 September 2014

Prime Minister Launching Website MakeinIndia.com
Source for the picture: PIB.nic.in Photos

Full Speech of the Prime Minister in Hindi - Text and Video

The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will launch “Make in India”, as per the following details:

Venue:       Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi
Date:          Thursday, September 25, 2014
Time:         1000 hrs

Shri Arun Jaitley, Union Minister for Finance, Defence & Corporate Affairs and Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman, MoS (IC) for Commerce & Industry and MoS for Finance & Corporate Affairs will be the Guests of Honour in the launch.


Press Release in Detail

Prime Minister to Launch ‘Make in India’ Initiative

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi will launch “Make in India” initiative on 25th September 2014 from Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. The launch will be at both national level, state level and in Missions abroad. The ‘Make in India’ initiative has its origin in the Prime Minister’s Independence Day speech where he gave a clarion call to ‘Make in India’ and ‘Zero Defect; Zero Effect’ policy. State Governments, Business Chambers, Indian Missions aboard are playing an active role in the launch of the initiative.

The Government is committed to chart out a new path wherein business entities are extended red carpet welcome in a spirit of active cooperation. Invest India will act as the first reference point for guiding foreign investors on all aspects of regulatory and policy issues and to assist them in obtaining regulatory clearances. The Government is closely looking into all regulatory processes with a view to making them simple and reducing the burden of compliance on investors.

A dedicated cell has been created to answer queries from business entities through a newly created web portal (www.makeinindia.com). While an exhaustive set of FAQs on this portal will help the investor find instant answers to their general queries, the back-end support team of the cell would be answering specific queries within 72 hours. A pro-active approach will be deployed to track visitors for their geographical location, interest and real time user behaviour. Subsequent visits will be customised for the visitor based on the information collected. Visitors registered on the website or raising queries will be followed up with relevant information and newsletter. Investor facilitation cell will provide assistance to the foreign investors from the time of their arrival in the country to the time of their departure. The initiative will also target top companies across sectors in identified countries.

The ‘Make in India’ initiative also aims at identifying select domestic companies having leadership in innovation and new technology for turning them into global champions. The focus will be on promoting green and advanced manufacturing and helping these companies to become an important part of the global value chain.

The Government has identified 25 key sectors in which our country has the potential of becoming a world leader. The Prime Minister will be releasing separate brochures for these sectors along with a general brochure. The brochures covering sectors like automobiles, chemicals, IT, pharmaceuticals, textiles, ports, aviation, leather, tourism and hospitality, wellness, railways among others will provide details of growth drivers, investment opportunities, sector specific FDI and other policies and related agencies.

Since the new Government took over, a series of initiatives have been taken to revitalise the industrial sector in general and manufacturing sector in particular. To mention a few:

ü      The process of applying for Industrial License and Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandum has been made online on the e-Biz website 24*7;
ü      A vast number of Defence items have been de-licensed;
ü      The validity of Industrial license has been extended to three years;
ü      With a view to providing flexibility in working hours and increased intake of apprentices for on the job training, the Government has decided to amend a number of labour laws;
ü      An advisory  has been sent to all Departments/ State Governments to simplify and rationalize regulatory environment which includes:
·        on-line filing of all returns in a unified form;
·        no inspection without the approval of the Head of the Department, etc.

            Recently the Foreign Direct Investment policy has been liberalized. 100% FDI under automatic route has been permitted in construction, operation and maintenance in specified Rail Infrastructure projects; FDI in Defence liberalized from 26% to 49%. In cases of modernization of state-of-art proposals, FDI can go up to 100%; the norms for FDI in the Construction Development sector are being eased.

            The government is committed to improving the physical infrastructure. Development of dedicated freight corridors and investment in improving our ports and airports are underway. These corridors would house Industrial agglomerations along with smart cities. The private sector would be playing a significant role in these developmental works.

            For the manufacturing sector to take advantage of the improved physical infrastructure, the need for having a strong human capital is recognized. Government’s effort would be to equip the working age population with the right kinds of skill so that the manufacturing sector finds them employable. One of the first decisions that the new Government has taken is to set up a separate Department of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.

Various prominent National and International industry leaders are likely to attend the programme to launch the campaign along with Ministers, senior officials, Ambassadors and opinion leaders.
(Release ID :109953)

Make in India - India Economic Conclave Panel Discussion
December 2014


ET Now Upload

Program in Andhra Pradesh by CII, Andhra Pradesh - 25 September 2014

This is to inform you that CII will be organizing sessions and live telecast of the launch of “Make in India” Campaign initiated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. On 15th August 2014, Prime Minister of India invited Global Manufacturers to come and “Make in India” and sell it to the world with an aim to strike a balance between imports and exports and create jobs. The PM also advocated that “Make in India” must stand for quality products and encouraged domestic manufacturers to adopt a policy of “zero defect, zero effect” – make top of the line products with no ill effect on the environment.

To take the same forward, the Prime Minister is launching “Make in India” campaign on 25th Sept 2014 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.  In this regard, we will be organizing a Live Telecast of the ‘Make in India’ Campaign by the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India  on 25th September 2014

Prior to the Live Telecast,  CII is  organizing  an Interactive Sessions pertaining to manufacturing opportunities and prospects in Andhra Pradesh. The Session would discuss upon - Measures required to provide an impetus to industrialization and manufacturing in  Andhra Pradesh. and how it can be made an integral component of the “Make in India” campaign; Further Steps required to be undertaken at state level for improvement of Ease of Doing Business; Measures required for skill building; Measures required to make domestic companies to be part of the global value chain; Industrial Corridors, Other Actionables emerging from the address of the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India.

The Interactive Session and Launch of “MAKE IN INDIA “Campaign by the Prime Minister of India is scheduled on 25 September 2014 at 0900 hrs, Hotel The Gateway, MG Road, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh.

Aruna Mantena
[Executive Officer]
Confederation of Indian Industry
Andhra Pradesh
H. No. 1 - 11 - 252 / 9
Plot No. 7, Regal House
Motilal Nehru Nagar, Begumpet
Andhra Pradesh
Phone : +91-40-27765964 / 67 / 33
Fax :+91 40 27766116
Email : aruna.mantena@cii.in

Syam Prasad Eamani
[Executive Officer]
Confederation of Indian Industry
Andhra Pradesh
H. No. 1 - 11 - 252 / 9
Plot No. 7, Regal House
Motilal Nehru Nagar, Begumpet
Andhra Pradesh
Phone : +91-40-27765964 / 67 / 33
Fax :+91 40 27766116
Email : syam.prasad@cii.in

29 December 2014
National Workshop on Make in India at Vigyan Bhawan New Delhi
Prime Minister's Speech
Modi said culture of Government has to be

ROAD to success – “Responsibility. Ownership. Accountability. Discipline.”

He exhorted officers to follow the new culture

Updated: 8 May 2016,  13 Feb 2016, 6 Jan 2016,
13 April 2015,  22 Feb,  12 Feb 2015,
30 Dec 2014

Friday, May 6, 2016

Make in India - Thermal Power - $20 Trillion Economy Opportunity

Expansion in industrial activity to boost demand for electricity.
A growing population is likely to boost demand for energy.
Increasing market penetration and per-capita usage will provide further impetus to the energy industry.
Large capacity additions (174.9 GW) are targeted upto 2022.
Ambitious projects and increasing investments across the value chain.


Related Sectors

Make in India - Renewable Energy and Related Equipment - $20 Trillion Economy Opportunity

Make in India - Electrical Machinery

6 May 2016

Kiran Bedi ‏@thekiranbedi  

What a long way to go.. V r poorest in power consumption in comparison to developed countries.Tragic! @EconomicTimes



The data shows the growth avenue to Indian Economy. If we want to grow the economy, there has to be energy available in convenient form. In today's world electricity is a very convenient energy form. The country needs a plan to treble energy production in the shortest time possible with adequate utilization.

15 Feb 2016

Coal, Power & Renewable Sectors to Provide an Oppourtunity of One Trillion Dollar Investment by 2030: Shri Piyush Goyal 

While speaking at Seminar on Power & Coal during Make in India Week in Mumbai today, Shri Piyush Goyal said, “The efforts of Government have ushered the power sector in a new level of growth altogether which provides for the sector a possible investment opportunity, between 2015 & 2020, a five year period, of about $ 250 billion.

When I extrapolate that to a 15 year programme until 2030 the coal, power and renewable sector alone provides $1 trillion opportunity.
Infact the ADB has calculated a $ 2.3 trillion opportunity by 2035”.

He further added, “when I talk about $1 trillion investment by 2030, it’s a well defined area wise plan- what will go into transmission, what will opening of new mines, how will we bring technology into the coal sector, what will be our push towards energy efficiency, how are we going to bring in new coal generating plants which will be environmentally superior plants, what will we going to do about our gas based plants, how are we going to ensure the distribution sector works as a vibrant profitable business for the state discoms- all of these have been drawn out in great details. It provides great opportunity for the investors both in India and International.”

Talking about rural electrification, Shri Piyush Goyal said, “I am delighted that Prime Minister has taken up the task of rural electrification on mission mode and assured that in 1000 days (when he announced on 15th August 2015), there will be no village in this country without electricity access and I am even delighted to inform all of you that the ministry has taken the challenge to the next level and committed to the Indian that each of this 18,452 villages will be electrified in 730 days not the thousand days. Nearly one- third of the work is already done and as we speak about 5279 villages have already being electrified in last 10 months. By 31 March 2016, we expect over 6500 villages to be electrified and by 31st March 2017, our efforts will be to almost to electrify 80 to 90% unelectrified of villages across the country. By 2019, the effort is to ensure that every home gets electricity connection, most of them through the grid some of them through distributed energy and micro grids.”

Shri Piyush Goyal said that our global share of LED consumption has gone up from 0.1% to 12% in just 2 years on the global scale and the LED programme will save 100 bn units of electricity and $6.5 bn every year for consumers.

Shri Goyal stated that he is happy by the fact that India has surplus power and surplus coal because that is where we can ensure the success of our programmes to bring power to every individual, every business, ensure adequate power for our farmers and that’s the enabler which will help the Make in India programme to scale new heights of success and invite people from all across the world to come and invest in India, to come and enjoy the huge market demand that a billion plus aspirational Indians offer to the world.

(Release ID :136409)


April 2015 report

State Project Name Impl Agency Equipment Supplier  LOA Date Unit No Targeted Cap. (MW)
At the
of the
Assam Bongaigaon TPP NTPC BHEL 05.02.08 U-1 250 Jun-15
Bihar Muzafferpur NTPC BHEL 12.03.10 U-4 195  Feb-16
MP Vindhyachal TPP-V NTPC BHEL 05/2012 U- 13 500 Dec-15
Tripura Agratala CCPP NEEPCO Thermax 12.09.12 ST-1 25.5 May-15
Tripura Monarchak CCPP NEEPCO BHEL 23.07.10 ST 35.6 Aug-15
TN Tuticorin TPP NLC BHEL 28.01.09 U-2 500 Jul-15
WB Raghunathpur TPP, Ph-I DVC Chinese 14.12.07 U-2 600 Jan-16
 Total Central Sector  MW  2106.1 0

Chhattisgarh Marwa TPP CSPGCL BHEL 11.04.08 U-4 500 Sep-15
Gujarat Sikka TPS GSECL BHEL 10.05.07 U-4 250 Dec-15
Karnataka Bellary TPS St-III KPCL BHEL 28.09.10 U-3 700 Dec-15
Karnataka Yermarus TPP KPCL BHEL 09.04.10 U-1 800 Jan-16
Maharashtra Chandrapur TPS MSPGCL BHEL 25.07.08 U-9 500 Oct-15
Maharashtra Koradi TPS Expn MSPGCL L&T 23.09.09 U-9 660 Sep-15
Maharashtra Koradi TPS Expn. MSPGCL L&T 23.09.09 U-10 660 Feb-16
Maharashtra Parli TPS MSPGCL BHEL 20.01.09 U-8 250 Jan-16
Rajasthan Kalisindh TPP RVUNL BGRES 09.07.08 U-2 600 May-15
Telangana Singareni TPP Singareni Collieries Co Ltd BHEL 11.11.11 U-1 600 Jan-16
Telangana Kakatiya TPS Extn. T GENCO BHEL 13.10.08 U-1 600 Dec-15
UP Anpara-D TPS UPRVUNL BHEL 24.10.07 U- 6 500 Jun-15
UP Anpara-D TPS UPRVUNL BHEL 24.10.07 U- 7 500 Dec-15
WB Sagardighi TPS-Extn West Bengal BHEL 11.03.11 U-3 500 Sep-15
WB Sagardighi TPS-Extn West Bengal BHEL 11.03.11 U-4 500  Jan-16
 Total State Sector MW  8120

AP Painampuram TPP Thermal Power Tech Corporation Ltd hinese 09/2010 U-2 660 Aug-15

AP Vizag TPP Hinduja National Power Corp. Ltd HEL 03/2010 U-1 520 Oct-15
Chhattisgarh Bandakhar TPP M/s Maruti Clean (Chhattisgarh) td. hinese 07.06.11 U-1 300 Jun-15
Chhattisgarh Uchpinda TPP RKM owergen Pvt. Ltd Chinese 06/2009 U-1 360 Jun-15
Chhattisgarh BALCO TPP BALCO Pvt Ltd Chinese 20.08.07 U-1 300 Jun-15
Chhattisgarh BALCO TPP BALCO Pvt Ltd Chinese 20.08.07 U-2 300 Sep-15
Chhattisgarh Raikheda TPP GMR Non-BHEL U-2 685  Dec-15
Chhattisgarh Salora Vandana Vidyut Chinese U-2 135  Sep-15
Maharashtra Nasik TPP Ph-I Ratan India (Nasik) Power Ltd BHEL 24.11.09 U-2 270 Jan-16
MP Anuppur TPP Ph-I MB Power(MP) Chinese 15.11.10 U-1 600 600 20.04.2015 Jun-15
Orissa Ind Bharat TPP ( Orissa) Ind. Barath Chinese 16.05.09 U-1 350 Oct-15
Punjab Talwandi Sabo TPP Sterlite Chinese 18.07.09 U-2 660 Jun-15
Punjab Talwandi Sabo TPP Sterlite Chinese 18.07.09 U-3 660 Dec-15
UP Lalitpur TPP Lalitpur power Generation o. Ltd BHEL 21.03.11 U-1 660 Sep-15
UP Prayagraj (Bara ) TPP Prayagraj power Gen. Co. Ltd(J.P.Power Ventures) BHEL 21.10.09 U-1 660 Oct-15
Total Private Sector MW 120 600
 Grand Total 2015-16  MW 17346.1 600

7 June 2015

First company and power plant in the world to be certified to ISO 50001:2011

PARIS and MUMBAI, India, June 28, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Bureau Veritas Certification is pleased to announce that it has certified the Dahanu Thermal Power Station of Reliance Infrastructure Ltd. to ISO 50001:2011.

This is the first company and power plant in the world to be certified to ISO 50001:2011, the new standard for Energy Management developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization), and published officially on June 15th 2011.

The Dahanu Thermal Power Station has a production capacity of 2 x 250 MW, and uses coal as its primary fuel.  Among the benefits of the implementation of the standard, the most remarkable achievements are:

A complete review of the consumption of all major auxiliaries, equipment areas and  buildings
Improvement in the monitoring of the energy consumption for all operations
The definition of energy use and consumption limits for the most important energy operations and the implementation of deviation controls for energy and maintenance operations

In addition to operational improvement, Dahanu Thermal Power Station has conducted a series of targeted investments since March 2010 at an average breakeven time of 27 months is expected.

The company was recognized for its best-in-class energy practices by many awards, such as the Energy Management Award of the Confederation of the Indian Industry,  Certification audits were conducted by the Energy Efficiency and Carbon team in the Mumbai office of Bureau Veritas Certification, which originally audited Dahanu Thermal Power Station to EN/BS 16001:2009 in January 2011.

For more information on Reliance Infrastructure Ltd. and Dahanu Power station, please visit:

For more information on ISO 50001:2011 or Bureau Veritas Certification’s services, please visit:


8 April 2015

Power and Coal Minister said at CII National Conference 2015:  In the year 2019, power from thermal plants will be double of now at two trillion units, renewable energy will be five times of current at 300 billion units.  Coal output will increase to 150 billion tonnes (increase 1.5 times).

160 Giga Watts renewable energy will be installed by 2022 and $250 billion investment will be made.

Updated 6 May 2016, 28 Feb 2016

10 June 2015,  7 June,  8 April 2015, 14 Feb 2015

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Make in India - Roads and Highways

USD 3.8 Billion outlay planned for highways.
4.86 Million kms of roads and highways.
USD 19 Billion infrastructure development between 2012-17.
100,000 kms of national highway by the end of 2017.
100 completed Public Private Partnership Projects.


The government is expecting investments worth Rs. 25 lakh crores in infrastructure over the next three year according to Shri Nitin Gadkari, Cabinet Minister for Roads and Shipping.

This includes investments in Roads, Ports, 27 industrial clusters at ports and smart cities.

Clusters will have investment of Rs. 8 lakh crores.
5 lakh crores on road, railway and port connectivity.
by May 2017 Rs. 5 lakh crore road projects will be awarded.
by May 2016 Rs. 2 lakh crore road projects will be awarded.


Updated 1 May 2016,  16 Mar 2015

Make in India - Construction - $20 Trillion Economy Opportunity

India has an estimated urban housing shortage of 18.8 Million dwelling units. The housing shortage in rural India is estimated at 47.4 Million units, in 2012.

Present levels of urban infrastructure are inadequate to meet the demands of the existing urban population. There is need for re-generation of urban areas in existing cities and the creation of new, inclusive smart cities to meet the demands of increasing population and migration from rural to urban areas. Future cities of India will require smart real estate and urban infrastructure.

The Government of India is in the process of launching a new urban development mission.
This will help develop 500 cities, which include cities with a population of more than 100,000 and some cities of religious and tourist importance.
These cities will be supported and encouraged to harness private capital and expertise through PPPs, to holster their infrastructure and services in the next 10 years.

100 smart cities are planned.

To provide quality urban services on a sustainable basis in Indian cities, the need of the hour is that urban local bodies enter into partnership agreements with foreign players, either through joint ventures, private sector partners or through other models.



30 April 2016

Real Estate Act comes into force tomorrow after 8 year long efforts

Countdown for making operational rules, setting up Regulatory Authorities, Appellate Tribunals begins.

Rules to be made within a maximum period of 6 months; Authorities and Tribunals in one year  

Ministry of HUPA begins work on preparation of model Rules under the Act .

Central Government notifies 69 relevant Sections initiating action under the Act
States can provide protection to home buyers before the outer limit of one year and three months

Updated 1 May 2016, 9 Jan 2016, 15 Feb 2015