Monday, November 27, 2017

The Bhagavad Gita - Summaries of Chapter

I am writing on Vedas. I am also trying to create lessons to learn Sanskrit. Within this context, reading the Bhagavad Gita is appropriate. I started reading Gita today and I am starting this knol to record my understanding of each chapter. The initial versions is that of  Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. It is appropriate that I use his english version, as I am using the telugu detailed version of Swamiji for my reading now. The material will keep changing as I add my interpretation. I plan to write detailed summary of every chapter in due course of time.
Lord Krishna is the avatar (incarnation) of Lord Vishnu. Wherever, Krishna is mentioned, it is to be interpreted as Lord Vishnu. Vedas talk of unity in diversity. There is only one supreme Lord but all of us see many divine beings. We cannot see all of them at once. There is a difference in their messages.  The spiritual quest is to see that one great person through this diversity around us.
Chapter One:  Arjuna's Reactions on the Battle field.

In the battle field, at the start of the battle of the first day, Arjuna sees his intimate relatives, teachers and friends in both armies ready to fight and sacrifice their lives. he is overcome by grief and pity, his mind becomes bewildered, and he gives up his determination to fight and tells Krishna that he is not interested in fighting.
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 Videos of Jyotirveda2

Chapter 1 - Part 1 - Gita - Sanskrit - Moolam

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Chapter 2
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Chapter Two:  Krishna Starts his Answer
In the first chapter, Arjuna submits to Lord Krishna as His disciple and tells him to show him the way from his predicament.  Krishna begins His teachings to Arjuna by explaining the fundamental distinction between the temporary material body and the eternal spiritual soul. The Lord explains the process of eternal soul leaving and entering physical bodies. He also talks of duties of a person on the earth. He tells Arjuna that action has to be done, but the result may not come as expected. A man must not blame himself for the lack of result, if the effort was done properly. A person who understand this will keep on serving the world and through this Lord of this world. This is the nature of selfless service to the Supreme and it is the characteristic of a self-realized person. A person ever-ready to serve the society but does not feel dejected when things do not go expected.

Chapter Three:  Karma-yoga.

Everyone must engage in some sort of activity in this material world. No body can sit idle in world. The basic nature of a human will not allow him to sit idle.
 But actions can either bind one to this world or liberate one from it.
At some stage in life, a person has to go beyond the desires of his sense organs and be ready to leave this world peacefully. Once a person attains this state, he is liberated. By acting for the pleasure of the Supreme, without selfish motives, one can be liberated from the law of karma (action and reaction) and attain transcendental knowledge of the self and the Supreme. The pleasure of supreme is the pleasure of people of the world. Service to people is service to God.

Chapter Four:  Transcendental knowledge.

Transcendental knowledge - the spiritual knowledge of the soul, of God, and of their relationship - is both purifying and liberating. Such knowledge is the fruit of selfless devotional action (karma-yoga). The Lord explains the remote history of the Gita, the purpose and significance of His periodic descents to the material world, and the necessity of approaching a guru, a realized teacher. Why a guru is required. A guru is a role model. A guru achieved it. He helps the disciple to achieve it.

Chapter Five:  Karma-yoga - Action in Krishna Consciousness.

Outwardly performing all actions but inwardly renouncing their fruits, the wise man, purified by the fire of transcendental knowledge, attains peace, detachment, forbearance, spiritual vision and bliss. INward renouncing of the fruit is equivalent to going beyond desire. The fruits are not any more for him alone. The fruits are for others if the effort succeeds due to the support from Lord.

Chapter Six:  Dhyana-yoga.

Ashtanga-yoga, a mechanical meditative practice, controls the mind and senses and focuses concentration on Paramatma (the Supersoul, the form of the Lord situated in the heart). This practice culminates in samadhi, full consciousness of the Supreme.

Chapter Seven:  Knowledge of the Absolute.

Lord Krishna or Lord Vishnu is the Supreme Truth, the supreme cause and sustaining force of everything, both material and spiritual. Advanced souls surrender unto Him in devotion, whereas impious souls divert their minds to other objects of worship as well as pleasing of sense organs without a limit.

Chapter Eight:  Attaining the Supreme.

By remembering Lord Krishna in devotion throughout one's life, and especially at the time of death, one can attain to His supreme abode, beyond the material world. Remembering at the time of death means accepting the death with happiness. Only a person who has done his required duties can die peacefully.

Chapter Nine:  The most confidential knowledge.

Lord Krishna is the Supreme Godhead and the supreme object of worship. The soul is eternally related to Him through transcendental devotional service (bhakti). By reviving one's pure devotion one returns to Krishna in the spiritual realm.

Chapter Ten:  The Opulence of the Absolute - The Splendor.

All wondrous phenomena showing power, beauty, grandeur or sublimity, either in the material world or in the spiritual, are but partial manifestations of Krishna's divine energies and opulence. As the supreme cause of all causes and the support and essence of everything, Krishna is the supreme object of worship for all beings.

Chapter Eleven:  The Universal Form (Viswa Roopa Darshanam).

Lord Krishna grants Arjuna divine vision and reveals His spectacular unlimited form as the cosmic universe. Thus He conclusively establishes His divinity. Krishna explains that His own all-beautiful humanlike form is the original form of Godhead. One can perceive this form only by pure devotional service.

Chapter Twelve:  Devotional Service (Bhakti-yoga).

Bhakti-yoga, pure devotional service to Lord Krishna, is the highest and most expedient means for attaining pure love for Krishna, which is the highest end of spiritual existence. Those who follow this supreme path develop divine qualities. Bhakti-yoga involves listening to the Lord all the time. Hanuman is the ideal for Bhakti Yoga.

Chapter Thirteen:  Nature, the Enjoyer and Consciousness.

One who understands the difference between the body, the soul and the Supersoul beyond them both attains liberation from this material world.

Chapter Fourteen:  The Three Modes of Material Nature.

All embodied souls are under the control of the three modes, or qualities, of material nature: goodness (Sattva), passion  (Rajas) and ignorance (Tamas). Lord Krishna explains what these modes are, how they act upon us, how one transcends them, and the symptoms of one who has attained the transcendental state.

Chapter Fifteen:  The Yoga of the Supreme Person.

The ultimate purpose of Vedic knowledge is to detach oneself from the entanglement of the material world and to understand Lord Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who understands Krishna's supreme identity surrenders unto Him and engages in His devotional service.

Chapter Sixteen:  The Divine and Demoniac Natures.

Those who possess demoniac qualities and who live whimsically, without following the regulations of scripture, attain lower births and further material bondage. But those who possess divine qualities and live regulated lives, abiding by scriptural authority, gradually attain spiritual perfection. Demons trouble the society by not following its mores and morals.

Chapter Seventeen:  The Divisions of Faith.

There are three types of faith, corresponding to and evolving from the three modes of material nature.  Acts performed by those whose faith is in passion and ignorance yield only impermanent, material results, whereas acts performed in goodness, in accord with scriptural injunctions, purify the heart and lead to pure faith in Lord Krishna and devotion to Him. Such pure people like Sankaracharya, Ramanujacharya etc. are remembered for ages and they stay with the Lord for ages.

Chapter Eighteen:  Conclusion - The Perfection of Renunciation.

Krishna explains the meaning of renunciation and the effects of the modes of nature on human consciousness and activity. He explains Brahman realization, the glories of the Bhagavad-gita, and the ultimate conclusion of the Gita: the highest path of religion is absolute, unconditional loving surrender unto Lord Krishna. This will prevent one from committing any sin, brings one to complete enlightenment, and enables one to return to Lord's eternal spiritual abode.
Source for Swamiji's Summaries
http://www.bhagavad-gita.us/articles/661/1/Chapter-Summaries-of-the-Bhagavad-Gita/Page1.html


Updated 29 November 2017, Gita Jayanti Day, Margashirsha bahula ekadashi
First started on 25 January 2012

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