Saturday, September 30, 2017

Ekatma Manav Darshan Alternative to Capitalism - Full Lecture and Video

Lecture by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. on 10 February 2016




Picture Source: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10156640911425294&set=a.10152993031815294.1073741825.624935293&type=3&theater

Ekatma Manav Darshan Alternative to Capitalism - Part 1
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Ekatma Manav Darshan and Capitalism - Full Lecture - Audio
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Before I start the topic proper, I would like to point out four things from a personal perspective.

I thank the organizers of the seminar for giving an opportunity to me, to present my thinking on the topic. This responsibility to stand before an audience comprising some senior thinkers and authors on Deendayal’s philosophy gave me the energy to read literature related to the topic of the seminar. It benefitted me personally in the first instance to know more about the topic and continue reading and thinking on the issue.

Second, I have to think of persons who helped me in starting Deendayal Vichar Manch in Kakinada in 1992. We had some meetings and bought some books at that time. That early effort is helping me today. I thank them.

Third, I would like to tell you regarding my background in the field of economics. My education is basically in mechanical engineering. My post-graduation is in industrial engineering and this subject has more content in the fields of economics, accounting and finance. Industrial engineers have  the responsibility of  doing economic analysis of various investment proposals of engineering organizations and come out with ideas to reduce capital cost, operating cost and improve return on investment through suggesting better technical alternatives. My Phd is in the area of financial economics and I worked under a renowned Professor in Economics, Prof L.M. Bhole. He has significant contributions in Monetary Economics, Financial Economics and Gandhian Economics. My background in industrial engineering and financial economics in the area of equity investments make me have a special focus on investment in physical assets and equity instruments. This has connection to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs search the environment and come out with profitable investment opportunities. Whenever the return on such investments is higher than current rate more investment is made by people and this leads to increase in growth in production and income. We would discuss the economic policy suggested by Shri Deendayal regarding investment when we describe the policy prescriptions of ekatma manav darshan.

Fourth point I would like to emphasize is my present thinking the on the economic progress of the nation. When Prime Minister Narendra Modi had put the question to people of India, Can’t we dream of 20 trillion dollar Indian economy?, I heard it and checked its feasibility. With my understanding of macroeconomy and microeconomy, I came to the conclusion that it is a feasible dream. Most of the top economists and investment experts are talking about high growth of India. We invested adequate amount in the past to achieve the expected or required growth and we can do it every year in the years to come. Presently we have a Prime Minister who understood the working of the economic system and improved the performance of the economy in Gujarat and now the country is under his stewardship. Today, his plan of cooperation between  centre and states and competition among states to spur the development of their region is being actively pursued by all the states. We require the genuine involvement of large number of people of various professions to convert the present opportunity into realized wealth, i.e.,  a strong production system of goods and services for India.  I maintain number of blogs in the areas of industrial engineering and management and I write about potential for India’s development and measures to implement “Make in India” project in my blog Guide-India.blogspot.com.

I am sure the topics of the seminar today and the topic we are now discussing “Ekatma Manav Darshan & Capitalism” has something to contribute to the achievement of the dream of Param Vaibhav Bharat. India was a very prosperous country for many centuries. But, then the native Indians lost some battles and wars and became people who have to pay extra taxes to live in their own land and maintain the luxurious living of people belonging to England. The leaders of this society were subjugated. Bharat Mata suffered because, her children capable of promoting Jnana Yoga, and Raja Yoga were put in chains. But the ethos of this country helped some people to break their chains and provide leadership again. We are now fortunate to reach and occupy the shore of a sea of opportunity. We have to put in place an economic system which will help us to achieve our objectives by utilizing this sea of opportunity. Deendayalji’s policy prescriptions certainly help us in this regard.

Coming to the topic, Let us examine the system of capitalism. The economic historians say the idea of modern capitalism was developed by Adam Smith. Adam Smith developed his argument to promote the idea that the then existing systems of economy, Mercantilism and Physiocracy were not the right systems for increasing the wealth of a nation. Mercantilism was advocating state regulation to increase exports and reduce imports and also to export certain commodities and to import certain commodities. It is also advocating state regulation to ration or limit the number of producers/merchants and the amount of raw materials they can buy and store and the number of people they can employ. Mercantilism was advocating state regulation and was arguing that it will  increase  the wealth of the nation.

Physiocrats were more concerned with land as the chief productive resource and they are concerned with importance to be given to land and its use.

Adam Smith has emphasized the role of market where buyers and sellers meet and decisions to exchange  goods and money are made on the basis desires of producers and consumers. Whether food items that come from land are important or other items produced by using hands and raw materials and machines and raw materials with very less use of land are important is determined in the market place exchange. Markets can fix prices on their own and state need not fix prices based on the production cost. People make mistakes in markets and thereby suffer losses and modify their thinking and actions. Markets become penalising institutions by creating shortages and surpluses that cause unexpected losses to producers or consumers. Capitalist system based on individual freedom to consume or produce was accepted by many countries in the world and it delivered growth in wealth and incomes. No doubt the shortages and surpluses that were part of the system, resulted in huge price increases for certain commodities at some points in time causing tremendous hardship to consumers accustomed to using them for generations. Similarly, there was surplus goods that resulted in closure of number of productive establishments that resulted in huge unemployment of people with specialised skills accustomed to certain periodic expenditure. Business men suffered losses and therefore could not pay back their loans. The economic system has created prominent failures that led to suicides.

The capitalist economic system also created huge economic disparities, as capital can be created to an unlimited extent in contrast to land which is fixed in nature. The capitalists also exploited the labour ceaselessly, as the capital that can be created has no limit in theory. The labour class was exploited in various ways and this led to development of Marxist thought. Marx developed the theory that a person who feels exploitation starts a counter action. In the capitalist system, labour is exploited most and hence labour will start a revolution to change the system. The system Marx advocated has the feature that capital is owned by the state or society. It became the socialist system. Lenin could lead a successful revolution in Russia using the theories of Marx as the foundation. The revolution was exported successfully to more countries. The socialist thought of Marx found admirers in capitalist economies also and governments started owning increased amounts of capital.

Huge inequity in wealth and income, motivation to exploit labour and the consumers by the well- endowed capitalists, business cycles resulting in shortages and surpluses are the chief problems of capitalism. The problems of capitalism were identified and discussed and some alternatives were provided by western thinkers themselves.

I would like to stress at this stage that any criticism of capitalism by Deendayal Upadhyay was only reiteration of the criticisms by the western thinkers themselves. You need not doubt that  the criticism was developed by Shri Deendayal  was only for the sake of criticism. You can read the standard textbook on Economics by Nobel Prize winner Paul Samuelson (Chapter Alternative Economic Systems) to notice all the critical statements.


What is the economic alternative suggested by thinkers of Ekatma Manav Darshan? We identify Shri Deendayal Upadhyay as the person who systematized the basic ideas now termed as Ekatma Manav Darshan. Further elaborations and  explanations were provided by Shri Guruji, Shri Dattopant Thengadi, Prof Subramanian Swamy, Prof Ashok Modak, Shri Ravindra Mahajan, Shri Aserkar, Dr. Mahesh Sharma, Shri Bajrang Lal Gupta and others.  There are contributions from academic research community also. I referred to some of them. But in this talk I would like to restrict my focus to the policy prescriptions made by Shri Deendayal in his fourth lecture.

My argument in this portion of my  lecture is that the policy prescriptions made by Shri Deendayal in his lecture entitled “Economic Structure Suited to National Genius” are logical and can be applied without any great obstacles. No doubt as Shri Deendayal himself points out every economic action has to be undertaken based on socio-economic cost benefit analysis. The action has to be based on facts we call data and analysis that tells us that there is economic benefit to the society.

The important points made are:
1. The economic system must help in the development of every human being (who is born ignorant and helpless) into God-like being (Divine being). As we know, each of us start as an infant and become a person like sanyasi who desires less from the people around but does lot for the society. No doubt in the last stages of life, most of the persons may not be able to do anything. That is why people have start helping others as soon as possible and increase the quantity to the highest level when they have the energy in their body.
2. Economic system of the nation has to be designed to provide all human necessities and goods and services required to protect the nation from aggressors. In addition to these,  there has to be objective of helping people of other nations also.
3. Production system has to understand the limitation of the nature and only milk it and leave it in an able state to provide future generations also the resources. The biodiversity in nature that keeps certain desirable properties of the nature in proper quantities has to be understood and preserved.
4. In the production system only a limited number work and they have to provide all the facilities to the remaining population. Children, old people, housewives have to be provided all the facilities required by employed persons. So the system has to recognize that people with ability, work and provide to all. A man works not only for his bread alone, but also to provide for the needs of all others who are dependent on him.
5. Education is compulsory for all children. The economic system has to involve both family members and society to see to it that children are provided with adequate education. Education is a social responsibility along with it being the responsibility of parents.
6. Adequate medical facilities have to be there in the economic system and even free medical treatment has to be provided.
7. Everybody who wants to work must find employment in the economic system.
8. Capital formation has to take place and it will be good if every person can see the capital that is formed due to his effort. When the capital formed due to a person is credited to his account only, he will not feel that he is being exploited by people creating capital. Therefore a system is to be designed that accumulates  a certain amount of capital in the account of every person who is working.
9. We have to employ machines to the extent we relieve workers from the burden and increase productivity. Machines should not replace labour and make them unemployed. Buying and installing machines have to be planned in such a way that they do not displace existing workers. New employment must come up with new investment as needed by the society.
10. Seven ‘M’s are to be properly understood and employed optimally in the production system. These are 1. Man  2. Material 3. Money  4. Management  5. Motive power  6. Market and 7. Machine.
11. The ownership of capital can be with the state, individuals or any other entity based on pragmatic or economic analysis.
12. Swadeshi and Decentralization are the two words that characterise the economic system to be designed for India.

Swadeshi means increase or improvement of all parameters of our Swadesh. Some of these  parameters are GDP, National Income, Per capita income, literacy rate, life expectancy etc. Decentralization of power of allocating resources is required to ensure effectiveness and also efficiency. According to my studies, India needs to invest Rs. 55 lakh crore in 2016-2017. This means on an average investment of Rs. 10,000 crore has to take place in every parliamentary constituency. Lok Sabha members are the representatives of people interacting with the political executive as well as public administrative service executives. They have to take up the task of facilitating this investment target in the constituency. They have to arrange for interactive sessions with other representatives of people, mayors, municipal chairmen, panchayat presidents, local organizations belonging to agriculture, industry, services,  academicians and researchers to identify investment opportunities and set up organizations to increase production of goods and services. There is clear existing  opportunity for MPs and MLAs to take initiative and guide development in a decentralized manner in the country. I think, as a part of NITI Ayog budget, each MP is given say Rs. One crore per year to organize development related seminars and publish its proceedings in print, broadcast and online media. Such an activity makes discussion related to development a local issue and people come to know of their role in providing themselves with goods and services through various special organizations and their family production units.

Deendayalji concluded his lecture by saying that we have to revitalize our culture to make it dynamic and in tune with the times (Yuganukul) so that our society is enabled to live a healthy, progressive and purposeful life. We have to produce such institutions as will kindle a spirit of action in us.

Let us turn our attention to analytical imperatives suggested by Deendayalji.

Machine: A machine developed internally or imported must provide economic return. Machines have to be brought only after proper economic analysis that indicates adequate expected profit.

Idle machine is losing proposition to an industrialist. Similarly idle manpower is losing proposition to the society. Full employment of all willing people of the society has to be the primary objective of economic planning and technology choices have to be made with full employment as a constraint.
There has to be advance planning for the skills required for the technologies to be implemented. You should not keep your recently acquired machines idle because required skilled manpower is not there. You should not bring foreign technicians.

Availability of raw materials has to be assessed and then only investment decisions are made to optimally utilize available resources.

Capital formation has to be planned. Available capital has to be appropriately allocated to fixed capital and working capital.

Economic energy forms are to be used based on their availability. Energy productivity analysis is to be done and energy input has to be minimized.

We have to educate and  develop managers/leaders.  If we cannot develop people who can coordinate at least a dozen people, all other resources remain underutilized and we will underperform other nations.

Good understanding of the consumers’ requirements has to be there in the economic system. The economic analysis has to be based on the preferences indicated by the people.

Bharatiya technology has to be developed. Technology suited to optimal utilization of our resources subject to the constraint of full employment of persons with the desire to work is Bharatiya technology. Swadeshi ideal demands that we develop and employ Bharatiya technology.

I feel the policy prescriptions made by the proponents of Ekatma Manav Darshan are practical and productive.  We need to apply them in our economic practice at microeconomic level and ask the representatives of people and the politicians in government to implement them in macroeconomic decision making. It is only through writing memorandums and engaging in dialogue process that we can enrich the economic thought based on Ekatma Manav Darshan and also come across difficulties likely to come up during implementation.


During my reading of various articles and research papers, I came across the framework of capitalism outlined by a Harvard Professor with self interest and freedom as the two input variables. I modified the framework to reflect the commonly known Indian social values and the associated ways uplifting oneself.

The framework is  Inputs (behavioural) – Economic System (Society, Govt., Business, Trade Unions)  -  Outputs

Economic Model Based on Ekatma Manav Darshan (Integral Humanism)

|Self Interest, Others' Interests, Freedom subject to Principles of Dharma|
| (Kama),               (Moksh)                                                      (Dharma)              |
                                                       Leads to

| Individual learning,  Individual Activity, Increase in Knowledge,  Innovation, Social Activity,
|     (Dharma),                 (Karma)                   (Jnana)                                              


Major Adventures (Public and Private)|                                
     (Rajayogic ventures|


                                                        In turn leads to

|Growth in Wealth, Social stability, Socially Committed People|
|  (Artha,                                                             (Bhakti)                     |

I posted the model in my blog and circulated it to large number of people for comments. I request to go through the model at leisure and give your comments on how we can refine and explain the components of the model.
Thank you for the patient hearing and look forward to your comments and suggestions first and then your raising specific points that need more clarification.










Ekatma Manav Darshan & Capitalism by Dr. KVSS Narayana Rao



Economic Model Based on Ekatma Manav Darshan (Integral Humanism) by K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao


First Published on 24 January 2016, 1.52 pm (Indian Standard Time)




|Self Interest, Others' Interests, Freedom subject to Principles of Dharma|
| (Kama),        (Moksh)                 (Dharma)                                               |






                                                       Leads to



| Individual learning,  Individual Activity, Increase in Knowledge,  Innovation, Major Adventures|
|     (Dharma),                 (Karma)                   (Jnana)                                         (Rajayogic ventures|


                                                        In turn leads to

|Growth in Wealth, Social stability, Socially Committed People|
|  (Artha,                                                     (Bhakti)                     |



Ideas for enlarging the model.



In the intermediate step we can include activities of  Consumers and Social Sector Organizations, Government and Political Parties, Business Organizations and Trade Unions. Thus we identify and bring activities of people in the society into the model.

Bhakti can be interpreted commitment to the society, commitment to the organizations and to the people managing the organizations. Commitment will come only when people take care of desires of other people (stakeholders) apart from their own.

Source Materials

Deeadayalji's Book

http://www.readwhere.com/read/672256/Bharatiya-Artha-Niti/Tue-Dec-22,-2015#page/3/2


Mahesh Chandra Sharma
http://deendayalupadhyay.org/Economic%20Philosphy_book.html

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/simple-search?query=swadeshi&sort_by=score&order=desc&rpp=10&etal=0&start=50


Pandit deendayal uppadhyaye ke tatva vichar praman vichar evm shaikshik praroop ka vartman bhartiya sandarbh main upadeyta ka adhyyan
Researcher: Gupta, Geetu
Guide(s): Sindhu, Lovelata
2010  thesis completion
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/22157

Bhartiya rajneeti meain sampardayikta evam dharmnirpekshvad 1990 ke dashak meain bhartiya janta party ke pariprakshya meain ek samikshatmak adyyan
Researcher: Panu, Subhash Chandra
Guide(s): Awana, Ram Singh
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/24815

Vartman bharatiya rashtriya parivesh mein Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay ke shaikshik vicharon ka alochanatmak adhyayan (वर्तमान भारतीय राष्ट्रीय परिवेश में पं. दीनदयाल उपाध्याय के शैक्षिक विचारों का आलोचनात्मक अध्ययन)
Researcher: Tiwari, Babulal
Guide(s): Verma, J L
1997
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/10744



Peter Drucker - Business Organization - Economic Function - Social Responsibility
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/11/peter-drucker-business-organization.html


http://www.britannica.com/topic/economic-system


RSS Chief Mohanji Bhagawat's Address on Release of the Book Karunya Rushi
Book on Deendayal
http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2016-01-19/news/69900436_1_rss-chief-mohan-bhagwat-pandit-deendayal-upadhyaya-thoughts

Self Interest - The Economist's Straightjacket
Robert Simons, Professor, Harvard Business School,
2015 Working Paper
http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/16-045_2276e3cd-ab73-4ee8-b494-59488e6e1f0b.pdf

A ‘Bharatiya’ approach to development
PRAVEEN CHAKRAVARTY
15 March 2015
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/a-bharatiya-approach-to-development/article6996158.ece


Report on Seminar in Kerala
https://nl-nl.facebook.com/satish.talappilli/posts/788228481255552

Society was source of knowledge for Deendayal: S.Gurumurthy
2015
http://m.dailyhunt.in/news/india/english/news-bharati-epaper-newsbhar/society-was-source-of-knowledge-for-deendayal-sgurumurthy-newsid-38082537

Full Talk by Mohanji Bhagwat - 2014
http://samvada.org/2014/news/full-text-of-speech-by-rss-sarasanghchalak-mohan-bhagwat-on-vijaya-dashmi-2014-nagpur/


Video Michael Sandel
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/et-now/experts/market-economy-vs-market-society-experts-view/videoshow/29170549.cms


New Face of Swadeshi
http://www.businesstoday.in/cover-story/narendra-modi-government-economic-policy-neo-swadeshinomics/story/207248.html


BJP Manifesto : Lok Sabha Elections 2014


Critics Capitalism - MIT Course 2013
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/economics/14-72-capitalism-and-its-critics-fall-2013/readings/

http://www.forbes.com/sites/nathanlewis/2012/02/23/the-crisis-of-capitalism-is-a-lack-of-capitalism/#6d00ed077146


http://www.dailypioneer.com/columnists/edi/swadeshi-economics-not-fdi.html

Market economy? or, market society?
S. Gurumurthi
http://www.swadeshionline.in/article-author/market-economy-or-market-society


Michael J. Sandel Warns Market Society Risks America's Soul
 04/13/2012
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/michael-j-sandel-market-society_n_1424733.html?section=india

Democratic Crisis of Capitalism - 2011
http://www.lse.ac.uk/europeanInstitute/LEQS%20Discussion%20Paper%20Series/LEQSPaper44.pdf

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/series/capitalism-in-crisis

Economic Crisis, Swadeshi and Gandhian Economics
C.S. Dharmadhikari
GVP Wardha
http://www.gvpwardha.iecit.in/documents/books/swadeshi/1.pdf

Towards an Integral Economy and Integral Society: Introduction
Dr. Darja Piciga, Slovenia
2010 Paper
http://www.dpiciga.com/Integral%20Approach_121112.pdf



How Did Economists Get It So Wrong?  - 2009 Paul Krugman
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/magazine/06Economic-t.html


http://web.uvic.ca/~stucraw/Lethbridge/MyArticles/Swadeshi.htm


Why we may return to Swadeshi economics
M.R. Venkatesh, 2007
http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/aug/07swad.htm

1982 - Strucutral crisis in capitalism
http://unctad.org/en/Docs/prebisch1st_prebisch_en.pdf



Google Books



Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya's Roadmap for India

Vivasvan Shastri
Partridge Publishing, Dec 23, 2015 - 176 pages


This book attempts to present a roadmap for the re-devlopment and re-construction of a nation as diverse and as huge as India. The roadmap takes into account India's unique histrory, culture and ethos. The ideas and concepts presented in this book are of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayaya. This book is also a tribute to a rishi like Deen Dayal on his 100th birth anniversary.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=lIRuCwAAQBAJ


Globalization and India's Economic Integration
Baldev Raj Nayar
Georgetown University Press, Oct 14, 2014 - 299 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=xXgZBQAAQBAJ


Rethinking the Market Economy: New Challenges, New Ideas, New Opportunities
Jean-Jacques Lambin
Palgrave Macmillan, Mar 14, 2014 - 312 pages


The 2008 crisis has shaken public trust in the market economy and several economists believe that, to drive recovery, new models of capitalism must be embraced. Will society develop and implement a new balance between state, business and society? How can we amend the capitalist system dominated by the neoliberal doctrine and adopt economic mutations without altering the core principles of a free market economy?

Rethinking the Market Economy explores the changing socio-economic and technological landscape of the twenty first century and what it means for the firm. The lack of vision of tomorrow's political economy system generates uncertainties and undermines the democratization process of Europe and the World Economy. This book adopts an industrial economic approach and is clearly business-oriented, whilst proposing a road map leading to the adoption of a 'societal market economy' model as an appealing and politically acceptable 'third way' between capitalism and socialism.

The main shortcomings of conventional capitalism are presented with their managerial implications for the market-oriented firm. The analysis is transversal and intersects with different kinds of disciplines: economy, sociology, political science, social psychology, strategic management, giving to the reader an interdisciplinary and comprehensive coverage of the topic. This book is well documented and provides a good coverage of the academic and professional related literature.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=qYGEAwAAQBAJ

Humanism in Business

Heiko Spitzeck
Cambridge University Press, Feb 26, 2009 - 438 pages


What is the purpose of our economic system? What would a more life-serving economy look like? There are many books about business and society, yet very few of them question the primacy of GDP growth, profit maximization and individual utility maximization. Even developments with a humanistic touch like stakeholder participation, corporate social responsibility or corporate philanthropy serve the same goal: to foster long-term growth and profitability. Humanism in Business questions these assumptions and investigates the possibility of creating a human-centered, value-oriented society based on humanistic principles. An international team of academics and practitioners present philosophical, spiritual, economic, psychological and organizational arguments that show how humanism can be used to understand, and possibly transform, business at three different levels: the systems level, the organizational level and the individual level. This groundbreaking book will be of interest to academics, practitioners and policymakers concerned with business ethics and the relationship between business and society.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=xmAjwS-Q9LEC

Philosophical Humanism and Contemporary India

V.P. Varma
Motilal Banarsidass Publ., Jul 1, 2006 - 211 pages


An attempt has been made in this book to reconstruct idealist humanist philosophy on the basis of Eastern and Western metaphysics and the natural sciences. It supports the basic principle of ethical absolutism as opposed to relativism. It analysis the fundamental principles of humanist political thought with reference to sovereignty, obligation and rights.It is hoped that policy-makers and planers in the developing countries will find here an integral world-view and exposition of concrete technics to meet the challanges of the hour.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=4xjw6lLqvxoC


Development Alternatives: Theories and Evidence
Allied Publishers, 2004 - 188 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=89dusVOBW8AC

Revised version of papers presented at the National Seminar on Development Alternatives : Theories and Evidence, held at Midnapore.



New Socialisms: Futures Beyond Globalization

Robert Albritton, Shannon Bell, Richard Westra
Routledge, Jul 31, 2004 - 288 pages

The major problems facing the world as it gets used to the twenty-first century are global inequality, poverty, war and militarism, oppression, exploitation and ecological sustainability. Far from solving these problems, economic and political neo-liberalism seems to be plunging us deeper into them. Diverse opposition movements have arisen over the years to combat these problems, which the groups generally consider to be the result of "globalization". These opposition movements suffer greatly from being opposed to lots of things without necessarily putting forward realistic alternative suggestions. This impressive new book seeks to analyze and develop serious alternatives to the status quo. With contributions from a wide range of scholars, this important book will provide a uniquely varied outlook. Students and academics involved in international politics and economics as well as general readers with an interest in the anti-globalization movement will find this work incredibly useful.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=_-t-AgAAQBAJ

The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India

Thomas Blom Hansen
Princeton University Press, Mar 23, 1999 - 304 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=SAqn3OIGE54C&q=


The rise of strong nationalist and religious movements in postcolonial and newly democratic countries alarms many Western observers. In The Saffron Wave, Thomas Hansen turns our attention to recent events in the world's largest democracy, India. Here he analyzes Indian receptivity to the right-wing Hindu nationalist party and its political wing, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which claims to create a polity based on "ancient" Hindu culture. Rather than interpreting Hindu nationalism as a mainly religious phenomenon, or a strictly political movement, Hansen places the BJP within the context of the larger transformations of democratic governance in India.

Hansen demonstrates that democratic transformation has enabled such developments as political mobilization among the lower castes and civil protections for religious minorities. Against this backdrop, the Hindu nationalist movement has successfully articulated the anxieties and desires of the large and amorphous Indian middle class. A form of conservative populism, the movement has attracted not only privileged groups fearing encroachment on their dominant positions but also "plebeian" and impoverished groups seeking recognition around a majoritarian rhetoric of cultural pride, order, and national strength. Combining political theory, ethnographic material, and sensitivity to colonial and postcolonial history, The Saffron Wave offers fresh insights into Indian politics and, by focusing on the links between democracy and ethnic majoritarianism, advances our understanding of democracy in the postcolonial world.


Multinationals Versus Swadeshi Today: A Policy Framework for Economic Nationalism

Parmatam Parkash Arya, B. B. Tandon
Seminar Proceedings
Deep and Deep Publications, 1999 - 516 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=z-h7OAYehP8C


Love your fellow beings. This is bhakti.


Jaya Row, in the article "Successful People Look Beyond the Obvious" published in Times of India on 16 July 2016, wrote, "Feel universal love, free from selfishness, expectations and demands. Love your fellow beings. This is bhakti. Swearing love to an unseen God when you hate people around you is not devotion."
http://www.speakingtree.in/article/successful-people-tend-to-look-beyond-the-obvious


What Will Replace Outdated Left and Right Economic Thinking? The Commons Paradigm

By David Bollier
2017 September 30
http://evonomics.com/will-replace-outdated-left-right-economic-thinking-commons-paradigm/



Updated on  2 October 2017,  16 July 2016, 10 Feb 2016, 1 Feb 2016



Mahatma Gandhi on God, Prayers and Avatars (Incarnations) of God

As a Hindu, I believe in Avatars. I believe that in the pursuit of his plan, God sends his special messengers on earth upon whom the effulgence ofthe glory of God especially shines, and who in our Shastras are known as Avatars. 
Young India, 8 Sep 1921.
No one has found Him. But Avatars and prophets have, by means of their tapasya given to mankind a faint glimpse of the Eternal Law
Harijan, 25.4.1940
God has thousand names, or rather He is nameless.
God is not a person. God is an eternal principle
Truth is my religion and ahimsa is the only way of its realization
What does Jesus mean to me? To me, he was one of the greatest teachers humanity has ever had.
Prayer is the only means of bringing about orderliness and peace and repose in our daily life
The Gita is my spiritual diary, it is not for those who have no faith


Mahatma Gandhi : God is Life, Truth, Light, Love and The supreme Good - YouTube Video

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSWzFz-tGrM


Mahatma Gandhi on God and Truth
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indiavideodotorg



Original Knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/mahatma-gandhi-on-god-prayers-and/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 932

Updated 2 October 2017, 2 October 2014

Thoughts Of Mahatma Gandhi

 

Deal with your enemy in such a way that you can become friends.


"You must deal with your enemy so that one day he may be your friend...."  Included in a passage by Shri Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Published in The Speaking Tree, Mumbai dated May 14, 2017, page 4.


    Prof Narayana Rao beside the Gandhi Status in Geneva, Switzerland

                                       
"It is health that is real wealth and not
pieces of gold and silver."
- Mahatma Gandhi
(via @quotme)




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A 5 hours. 10 minutes.  Documentary covers almost all events and principles of Gandhi's life and thought are viewed as integrated parts of his truth-intoxicated life depicting permanent and universal values.  



Quotations used in advertisements 2012
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"The shape of the world would indeed be transformed if all of us lived in a spirit of love and amity with one another."


"India can't prosper if rural India lags behind, and I think rural electrification is the first step towards this."

"I would make the spinning wheel the foundation on which to build a sound village life and I would make the wheel the centre around which all other activities will revolve."


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If you love peace
"If you love peace, then hate injustice, hate tyranny, hate greed, but hate these things in yourself, not in another."
 
Labor of a man
The divine law, that man must earn his bread by laboring with his own hands, was first stressed by a Russian writer named T.M.Bondaref. Tolstoy advertised it and gave it wide publicity. In my view the same principle has been set forth in the third chapter of the Gita, where we are told, that he who eats without offering sacrifice eats stolen food. Sacrifice here can only mean bread labor.(Gandhi exhorts every body to put in efforts to create useful articles first and then consume what he needs out of it).
 
In  From Yeravda Mandir, Chap IX. Navjivan Publishing House, 1945
 
Leadership
A leader is only first among equals....
Having made our selection we must follow him or the chain is broken and all is loose.
 
Young India, 8.12.1921
 
Discipline and Freedom
The highest form of freedom carries with it the greatest measure of discipline and humility. Freedom that comes from discipline and humility cannot be denied, unbridled license is a sign of vulgarity alike to self and one's neighbors.
 
Young India, 3.6.1926
 
Congress Ministers
If the Congress wants to continue as a people's organization, the Ministers cannot live as sahib log nor use for private work facilities provided by Government for official duties.
 
Harijan, 29.9.1946
 
Caste System of Hindus
Today Brahmanas, and Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras are mere labels. There is utter confusion of Varna as I understand it and I wish that all the Hindus will voluntarily call themselves Shudras. That is the only way to demonstrate the truth of Brahmanism and to revive Varnadharma in its true state.
 
Harijan, 25.3.1933
 
Children
The real property that  a parent can transmit to all equally is his or her character and educational facilities.... Parents should seek to make their sons and daughters self-reliant, well able to earn an honest livelihood by the sweat of the brow.
 
Young India, 29.10.1931
 
Our Potential Contribution to World's Problems 
 "The difference between what we are doing and what we are capable of doing would solve most of the world's problems "-
 
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Gandhi's Thoughts
T-Series Video
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More Thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi
 
Soldier in arms is trained to kill. Even his dreams are about killing
 
Ahimsa is the highest ideal. It is meant for the brave, never for the cowardly
 
The platform of service is as big as the world. It is never overcrowded.
 
Man believes and dies.
 
The morality consists not in following the beaten track, but in finding out the true path for ourselves and in fearless following.
 
If by strength is meant moral power, the woman is immeasurably man's superior
 
It has always been a mystery to me how men can feel themselves honored by their humiliation of their fellow beings.
 
I have never in my life regarded any one as my servant, but as a brother and sister.
 
The truest test of civilization, culture and dignity is character and not clothing
 
Non-violence does not signify that man must not fight against the enemy , and by enemy is meant the evil which men do, not the human beings themselves (You can transform human beings throughs display of non violent anger [satyagraha] in support of truth and justice.)
 
Fear of disease killed more than disease itself
 
Patriotism is not enough, I must have no hatred or bitterness towards anyone
 
Take away the idea of perfection, and you take away enthusiasm
 
When you have a good cause, never descend to personalities
 
I must not serve distant neighbors at the expense of the nearest
 
The essence of education lies in drawing out  the very best that is in you
 
Prayer is not an old woman's idle amusement. Properly understood and applied, it is the most potent instrument of action.
 
To believe in something and not to live it, is dishonest

The moment there is suspicion about a person's motives, everything he does becomes tainted

The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong

Contributed by  Ramam DSS
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 Mahatma Gandhi in Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule

First Edition 1938, Twentieth Reprint, November 2008 (10,000 copies), Navjivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad.
 
"It is a bad habit to say that another man's thoughts are bad and ours only are good and that those holding different views from ours are the enemies of the country"

"The seed in never seen. It works underneath the ground, is itself destroyed,and the tree which rises above the ground is alone seen."
 
"The English have not taken India. We have given it to them. They are not in India because of their strength, but because we keep them."
 
"Humdug there undoubtedly is about all religions. Where there is light, there is also shadow."
 
"India cannot cease to be one nation because people belonging to different religions live in it. The introduction of foreigners does not necessarily destroy the nation, they merge in it. A country is one nation only when such a condition obtains in it."
 
"God set a limit to a man's locomotive ambition in the construction of his body. Man immediately proceeded to discover means of overriding the limit. God gifted man with intellect that he might know his Maker. Man abused it so that he might forget his Maker."
 
On Globalization
 "I am so constructed that I can only serve my immediate neighbours, but in my conceit I pretend to have discovered that I must with my body serve every individual in the Universe. In thus attempting the impossible, man comes into contact with different natures, different religions, and is utterly confounded."
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More
A series of knols on Mahatma Gandhi's thoughts on various issues are being developed by me.
 
There are news items all around that copy right of various parties on books and articles written by Mahatma Gandhi have expired and people can print books written by Gandhi without paying royalty to anybody. Hope this will help in spreading Gandhiji's message to more people if some interested parties can come forward and print books at lower costs. But certainly they can be published on the net and made accesible to large number of people.
 
All knols on Gandhiji's thoughts will be open collaboration knols so that visitors can add relevant thoughts and also write their comments on Gandhian philosophy.
 
 

Directory - List of Knols - Thoughts Of Mahatma Gandhi

 
Mahatma Gandhi on Industrialisation
Mahatma Gandhi on Indian Tradition
Mahatma Gandhi on Wages to Workmen
Mahatma Gandhi on Embracing Poverty Voluntarily
Mahatma Gandhi on Alcohol
Mahatma Gandhi on Wisdom
Mahatma Gandhi on Teachers
Mahatma Gandhi on Villages
Mahatma Gandhi on Business and Ethics
Mahatma Gandhi on Brahmacharya
Mahatma Gandhi on Avatars (Incarnations) of God
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About Gandhian thinking by Krishan Saigal

For Gandhi, human existence was chacterized by two fundamental features. First each individual was uniquely constituted and had a right to live by the truth as he saw it. Second, all men were one; what united them was far more important than what divided them and there were no differences that could not be resolved or lived with in the spirit of charity and goodwill. Since  both unity and difference, harmony and disagreement, were the necessary features of human existence, Gandhi argued that every human association must fully acknowledge and find ways of reconciling them. 
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Web Pages Related to Gandhian Thought

http://www.mkgandhi-sarvodaya.org/
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Mahatma Gandhi - Videos
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2GgK_Nq9NLw
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More videos
Mahatma Gandhi - Videos
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Gandhi's Dream for Villages of India


A cow in every house
provided with plentiful green grass

carpenters, tailors

potters and shoppers

business every where

with plenty to share

A doctor to look after

Good leader to administer

A teacher for children to grow

A bank for wealth to flow

Gandhi's dream

For me, it is supreme


by Narayana Rao, Vamsi, Priyanka


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Original Knol Number 909
Coauthors contributed on Knol - D.S.S. Ramam and P.V. Ariel

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More Quotations from Gandhi
• I have nothing to teach the world. Truth and non-violence are as old the hills
• Non-cooperation with evil is a sacred duty
• I do not seek kingdom, I do not seek heaven, I do not seek moksha. I pray that the suffering humanity be relieved from pain
• If untouchability lives, Hinduism perishes, and even India perishes
• Knowledge without character is a power for evil only as seen in the instances of so many talented thieves • English is so beautiful that no other language can stand comparable to it
• The king was wearing enough for both of us – M.K.Gandhi when asked why he did not wear a suit to meet the king
• Our temple is in our hearts. A temple constructed of a few stones has no meaning
• A man is but a product of his thoughts; what he thinks that he becomes • The outward behavior of a man is at once the sign and proof of the inner state
• Action expresses priorities
• Truth and non-violence are my God
• The only real dignified human doctrine is the greatest good of all, and this can only be achieved by utmost self-sacrifice
• Every village has to become a self-sufficient republic
• India can win over conquerors culturally, traditionally, spiritually but never politically
• My writing should be cremated with my body. What I have done will endure, not what I have said and written
• He who wants to please all will please none
• Humility is the key to guide success
• No matter how weak a person is in body, if it is a shame to flee, he will stand his ground and die at his post. This would be non-violence and bravery

Contributed By D.S.S. Ramam

Updated 2 October 2017,  14 May 2017, 2 October 2014,  29 August 2014, 2 October 2012

Friday, September 29, 2017

2017 India Slowdown - Opinions, Causes, Analysis and Suggested Measures - A Collection




2017 Indian Economy Slowdown Problem - Analysis and Suggested Solution - Prof. Narayana Rao


https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/2017-indian-economy-slowdown-problem-analysis-suggested-kvss


Plan public sector units immediately. Plan for one project of Rs. 10,000 crore in each state. States have to also go in for public sector investment. They have to plan units with Rs. 1000 crore investment in each of the districts in the state.


Involve MPs and MLAs in investment planning and promotion at constituency level. Promote all innovation and investment opportunities and related finance schemes through elected representatives.


Create sub-categories in Mudra Finance scheme and promote self employment of one crore persons and wage employment of another one crore persons.


Increasing Public Investment Is Crucial to Arresting India’s Economic Growth Slowdown

21 September

The investment to GDP ratio is below 30% today, though it used to be more than 35% over the last decade.

 A Keynesian style interventionist strategy to increase the volume and rate of public investments over the long run can help in improving the poor domestic industrial growth performance. In sectors where manufacturing capacities need a stronger push, increase in public investment will be seen as a good measure.
https://thewire.in/179399/increasing-public-investment-crucial-arresting-indias-economic-growth-slowdown/



Suggested Solutions by Various Agencies and Experts

Interviews - Suggestions by Rahul Bajaj, Ajit Ranade
29 September 2017
https://theprint.in/2017/09/29/slowing-indian-economy-revival/


Floor hasn’t fallen through: Don’t go by ‘feel’, economic data call for measured rather than precipitate action
September 25, 2017, 2:00 AM IST Arvind Panagariya in TOI Edit Page | Economy, Edit Page, India | TOI
https://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/toi-edit-page/floor-hasnt-fallen-through-dont-go-by-feel-economic-data-call-for-measured-rather-than-precipitate-action/

The average gross capital formation (GCF) as a proportion of GDP, at 31.9% during 2014-15 and 2015-16, has been below the figure of 34.6% during 2003-04 to 2011-12.

We lack data on savings and investment for 2016-17 (Comment by me: may be reported data for corporate sector. In the GDP estimates total investment is available. GCF is now around 27%)

Indian Economy In Slowdown: Five Things PM Modi Can Do To Fire Growth

India Today
Published on 23 Sep 2017

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Conversation with Subramanian Swamy | CNN-News18
16 September 2017
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2017 Indian Economy  Slowdown Warnings

Economic slowdown is real, not just technical: SBI Research

Sep 19, 2017,
SBI Research today said the slowdown is real and not technical and called for more public spending to arrest the slide.
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/economic-slowdown-is-real-not-just-technical-sbi-research/articleshow/60749111.cms


India’s Growth Slowdown: Analysis of the Anatomy

BloombergQuint
13 Sep 2017

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This new monster can slow down India's growth rate, despite GST
Jul 04, 2017
India is "significantly under-performing compared to its potential now for quite some time,"
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/markets/stocks/news/this-new-monster-can-slow-down-indias-growth-rate-despite-gst/articleshow/59438574.cms

India’s Economic Growth Slows Down in Fourth Quarter
While GDP growth was 6.1%, belying market expectations, gross value added (GVA) growth slowed even more sharply in the fourth quarter to 5.6%. Sectors such as manufacturing and construction also took a sharp hit.
31 May
https://thewire.in/142168/q4-gdp-growth-india/



Updated  30 September 2017,  25 September 2017, 23 September 2017, 22 September 2017

Vijayadashami Pooja - Telugu - విజయదశమి పూజ - శ్రీ రాజ రాజేశ్వరీ దేవి పూజ - దుర్గాదేవీ పూజ




దుర్గాదేవీ పూజా విధానం



శుక్లామ్బరధరమ్ విష్ణుమ్  శశి వర్ణం చతుర్భుజం
ప్రసన్న వదనం ధ్యాయెత్ సర్వ విఘ్నోప శాంతాయే

దీపత్వమ్ బ్రహ్మ రూపేసి  జ్యోతిషాం  ప్రభురవనయహ్
సౌభాగ్యం దేహి పుత్రాన్స్‌చ సర్వాన్ కామాన్‌శ్చ దేహిమ్

దీపమును వెలిగించి దీపపు కున్దిని కుంకుమ అక్షంతాలతో అలంకరీంపవలెను

శ్లో : అగమార్ధం తు దేవానాం గమనార్ధం తు రక్షసాం
కురుఘంటారవం తత్ర దేవతాహ్వాన లాంఛనమ్

(గంటను మ్రోగించవలెను)

ఆచమనం

ఓం కేశవాయ స్వాహా, ఓం నారాయణాయ స్వాహా, ఓం మాధవాయ స్వాహా

(అని మూడుసార్లు ఆచమనం చేయాలి)

ఓం గోవిందాయ నమః,విష్ణవే నమః,
మధుసూదనాయ నమః,త్రివిక్రమాయ నమః,
వామనాయ నమః,శ్రీధరాయ నమః,
ఋషీకేశాయ నమః, పద్మనాభాయ నమః,
దామోదరాయ నమః, సంకర్షణాయ నమః,
వాసుదేవాయ నమః, ప్రద్యుమ్నాయ నమః,
అనిరుద్దాయ నమః, పురుషోత్తమాయ నమః,
అధోక్షజాయ నమః, నారసింహాయ నమః,
అచ్యుతాయ నమః, జనార్ధనాయ నమః,
ఉపేంద్రాయ నమః, హరయే నమః,
శ్రీ కృష్ణాయ నమః

ఉత్తిష్ఠంతు భూతపిశాచా ఏతే భూమిభారకాః
ఏతేషా మవిరోధేనా బ్రహ్మకర్మ సమారభే ||

(ప్రాణాయామం చేసి అక్షతలు వెనుకకు వేసుకొనవలెను.)

ప్రాణాయామము

(కుడిచేతితో ముక్కుపట్టుకొని యీ మంత్రమును ముమ్మారు చెప్పవలెను)


ఓం భూః ఓం భువః ఓం సువః ఓం మహః ఓం జనః ఓం తపః ఓం సత్యం ఓం తత్సవితుర్వరేణ్యం భర్గో దేవస్య ధీమహి ధియో యోనః ప్రచోదయాత్ ఓం అపోజ్యోతి రసోమృతం బ్రహ్మ భూర్బువస్సువరోమ్

సంకల్పం

ఓం మమోపాత్త దురితక్షయద్వారా శ్రీ మహా లక్ష్మి ప్రీత్యర్ధం శుభే శోభ్నే ముహూర్తే శ్రీ మహావిష్ణోరాజ్ఞాయా ప్రవర్తమానస్య అద్యబ్రహ్మణః ద్వితీయ పరార్ధే శ్వేత వరాహకల్పే వైవస్వత మన్వంతరే కలియుగే ప్రథమపాదే జంబూద్వీపే భరతవర్షే, భరతఖండే మేరోర్ధక్షిణదిగ్భాగే, శ్రీశైలశ్య ఈశాన్య (మీరు ఉన్న దిక్కును చప్పండి) ప్రదేశే కృష్ణ/గంగా/గోదావర్యోర్మద్యదేశే (మీరు ఉన్న ఊరికి ఉత్తర దక్షినములలొ ఉన్న నదుల పేర్లు చెప్పండి) అస్మిన్ వర్తమాన వ్యావహారిక చంద్రమాన (ప్రస్తుత సంవత్సరం) సంవత్సరే (ఉత్తర/దక్షిన) ఆయనే (ప్రస్తుత ఋతువు) ఋతౌ (ప్రస్తుత మాసము) మాసే (ప్రస్తుత పక్షము) పక్షే (ఈరోజు తిథి) తిథౌ (ఈరోజు వారము) వాసరే (ఈరోజు నక్షత్రము) శుభనక్షత్రే (ప్రస్తుత యోగము) శుభయోగే, శుభకరణే. ఏవంగుణ విశేషణ విషిష్ఠాయాం, శుభతిథౌ,శ్రీమాన్ (మీ గొత్రము) గోత్రస్య (మీ పూర్తి పేరు) నామధేయస్య ధర్మపత్నీ సమేతస్య అస్మాకం సహకుటుంబానాం క్షేమ స్థైర్య దైర్య విజయ అభయ,ఆయురారోగ్య ఐశ్వర్యాభివృద్యర్థం ధర్మార్దకామమోక్ష చతుర్విధ ఫలపురుషార్ధ సిద్ద్యర్థం ధన,కనక,వస్తు వాహనాది సమృద్ద్యర్థం పుత్రపౌత్రాభి వృద్ద్యర్ధం,సర్వాపదా నివారణార్ధం,సకలకార్యవిఘ్ననివారణార్ధం,సత్సంతాన సిద్యర్ధం,పుత్రపుత్రికా నాంసర్వతో ముఖాభివృద్యర్దం,ఇష్టకామ్యార్ధ సిద్ధ్యర్ధం,సర్వదేవతా స్వరూపిణీ శ్రీ దుర్గాంబికా ప్రీత్యర్ధం యావద్బక్తి ద్యానావాహనాది షోడశోపచార పూజాం కరిష్యే.

(అక్షతలు నీళ్ళతో పళ్ళెములో వదలవలెను.)

తదంగత్వేన కలశారాధనం కరిష్యే

కలశారాధనం

శ్లో :  కలశస్యముఖే విష్ణుః కంఠేరుద్ర స్సమాశ్రితః
మూలే తత్రోస్థితోబ్రహ్మా మధ్యేమాతృగణా స్మృతాః
కుక్షౌ తు సాగరా స్సర్వే సప్తద్వీపా వసుందరా
ఋగ్వేదోథ యజుర్వేద స్సామవేదోహ్యథర్వణః
అంగైశ్చ సహితాస్సర్వే కలశాంబు సమాశ్రితాః

(కలశపాత్రకు గంధము,కుంకుమబొట్లు పెట్టి పుష్పాక్షతలతో అలంకరింపవలెను.కలశపాత్రపై కుడిఅరచేయినుంచి ఈ క్రిందిమంత్రము చదువవలెను.)

శ్లో : గంగేచ యమునే చైవ గోదావరి సరస్వతి
నర్మదే సింధు కావేరి జలేస్మిన్ సన్నిధిం కురు
ఆయాంతు దేవపూజార్థం – మమ దురితక్షయకారకాః
కలశోదకేన పూజాద్రవ్యాణి దైవమాత్మానంచ సంప్రోక్ష్య

(కలశములోని జలమును పుష్పముతో దేవునిపైనా పూజాద్రవ్యములపైన,తమపైన జల్లుకొనవలెను.తదుపరి పసుపు వినాయకునిపై జలము జల్లుచు ఈ క్రింది మంత్రము చదువవలెను.)

మం :  ఓం గణానాంత్వ గణపతిగ్ హవామహే కవింకవీనాముపమశ్రస్తవం
జ్యేష్ఠరాజం బ్రహ్మణాం బ్రహ్మణస్పత అనశ్శృణ్వన్నూతిభి స్సీదసాదనమ్

శ్రీ మహాగణాధిపతయే నమః ధ్యాయామి,ఆవాహయామి,నవరత్న ఖచిత సింహాసనం సమర్పయామి. శ్రీ మహాగణాధిపతి మీద అక్షతలు, గంధం పువ్వులు వేయవలెను .

ఓం సుముఖాయ నమః,ఏకదంతాయ నమః,కపిలాయ నమః,గజకర్ణికాయ నమః,లంబోదరాయ నమః,వికటాయ నమః,విఘ్నరాజాయ నమః,గణాదిపాయ నమః,ధూమకేతవే నమః,గణాధ్యక్షాయ నమః,ఫాలచంద్రాయ నమః,గజాననాయ నమః,వక్రతుండాయనమః,శూర్పకర్ణాయ నమః,హేరంబాయ నమః,స్కందపూర్వజాయ నమః,ఒం సర్వసిద్ది ప్రదాయకాయ నమః,మహాగణాదిపతియే నమః నానావిధ పరిమళ పత్ర పుష్పపూజాంసమ్ర్పయామి. మహాగణాదిపత్యేనమః ధూపమాఘ్రాపయామి.

ఓం భూర్బువస్సువః ఓం తత్సవితుర్వరేణ్యం భర్గోదేవస్య ధీమహి ధియోయోనః ప్రచోదయాత్
సత్యంత్వర్తేన పరిషించామి అమృతమస్తు అమృతోపస్తరణమసి శ్రీ మహాగణాధిపతయే నమః గుడోపహారం నివేదయామి.

 శ్రీ మహాగణాధిపతి బెల్లము OR పండ్లు గానీ ప్రసాదముగ  నివేదించాలి.  కర్పూర  నీరాజనం దర్శయామి. (కర్పూరమును వెలిగించి చూపవలెను).

శ్రీ దుర్గా  దేవియే నమః ధ్యాయామి,ఆవాహయామి,నవరత్న ఖచిత సింహాసనం సమర్పయామి.

శ్రీ దుర్గా  దేవి యే నమః పాదయోః పాద్యం సమర్పయామి  (నీళ్ళు చల్లవలెను)

శ్రీ దుర్గా   దేవి యే నమః హస్తయోః ఆర్ఘ్యం సమర్పయామి  (నీళ్ళు చల్లవలెను)

ముఖే శుద్దాచమనీయం సమర్పయామి శుద్దోదకస్నానం సమర్పయామి (నీళ్ళు చల్లవలెను)

శ్రీ దుర్గా  దేవియే నమః వస్త్రయుగ్మం సమర్పయామి  (అక్షతలు చల్లవలెను)

శ్రీ దుర్గా   దేవి యే నమః దివ్య శ్రీ చందనం సమర్పయామి  (గంధం చల్లవలెను)

శ్రీ దుర్గా   దేవియే నమః అక్షతాన్ సమర్పయామి  (అక్షతలు చల్లవలెను)



అధాంగ పూజ

ఓం దుర్గాయై నమః పాదౌ పూజయామి
ఓం గిరిజాయై నమః గుల్ఫౌ పూజయామి
ఓం అపర్ణాయై నమః జానునీ పూజయామి
ఓం హరిప్రియాయై నమః ఊరూ పూజయామి
ఓం పార్వత్యై నమః కటిం పూజయామి
ఓం ఆర్యాయై నమః నాభిం పూజయామి
ఓం జగన్మాత్రే నమః ఉదరం పూజయామి
ఓం మంగళాయై నమః కుక్షిం పూజయామి
ఓం శివాయై నమః హృదయం పూజయామి
ఓం మహేశ్వర్యై నమః కంఠం పూజయామి
ఓం విశ్వవంద్యాయై నమః స్కంధౌ పూజయామి
ఓం కాళ్యై నమః బాహూ పూజయామి
ఓం ఆద్యాయై నమః హస్తౌ పూజయామి
ఓం వరదాయై నమః ముఖం పూజయామి
ఓం సువణ్యై నమః నాసికం పూజయామి
ఓం కమలాక్ష్యై నమః నేత్రే పూజయామి
ఓం అంబికాయై నమః శిరః పూజయామి
ఓం దేవ్యై నమః సర్వాణ్యం పూజయామి

శ్రీ దుర్గాష్టోత్తర శతనామ పూజ

 అక్షతలు ,పుష్పములు పూజ చెయ్యండి

 ఓం దుర్గాయై నమ:
ఓం శివాయై నమ:
ఓం  మహాలక్ష్మ్యై నమ:
ఓం మహా గౌర్యై నమ:
ఓం  చండికాయై నమ:
ఓం సర్వజ్జాయై నమ:
ఓం  సర్వలోకోశ్యై నమ:
ఓం  సర్వ కర్మ ఫల ప్రదాయై నమ:
ఓం  సర్వ తీర్థమయాయై నమ:
ఓం  పుణ్యాయైనమ:
ఓం  దేవయోనయే నమ:
ఓం అయోనిజాయై నమ:
ఓం భూమిజాయై నమ:
ఓం నిర్గుణాయై నమ:
ఓం ఆధార శక్త్యై నమ:
ఓం  అనీశ్వర్యై నమ:
ఓం నిర్గుణాయై నమ:
ఓం  నిరహంకారాయై నమ:
ఓం సర్వ గర్వ విమర్దిన్యై నమ:
ఓం సర్వలోక ప్రియాయై నమ:
ఓం  వాణ్యై నమ:
ఓం సర్వ విద్యాధిదేవతాయై నమ:
ఓం పార్వత్యై నమ:
ఓం దేవమాత్రే నమ:
ఓం  వనీశ్యై నమ:
ఓం వింద్య వాసిన్యై నమ:
ఓం తేజోవత్యై నమ:
ఓం మాహా మాత్రే నమ:
ఓం కోటి సూర్య సమ ప్రభాయై నమ:
ఓం దేవతాయై నమ:
ఓం వహ్ని రూపాయై నమ:
ఓం సతేజసే నమ:
ఓం వర్ణ రూపిణ్యై నమ:
ఓం గణాశ్రయాయై నమ:
ఓం గుణమద్యాయై నమ:
ఓం  గుణ త్రయ వివర్జితాయై నమ:
ఓం కర్మజ్జాన ప్రదాయై నమ:
ఓం కాంతాయై నమ:
ఓం సర్వ సంహార కారిణ్యై నమ:
ఓం ధర్మజ్జానాయై  నమ:
ఓం ధర్మ నిష్ఠాయై నమ:
ఓం సర్వ కర్మ వివర్జితాయై నమ:
ఓం కామాక్ష్యై నమ:
ఓం  కామ సంహత్ర్యై నమ:
ఓం కామ క్రోధ వివర్జితాయై నమ:
ఓం శాంకర్యై నమ:
ఓం శాంభవ్యై నమ:
ఓం శాంతాయై నమ:
ఓం చంద్ర సూర్య లోచనాయై నమ:
ఓం సుజయాయై నమ:
ఓం జయాయై నమ:
ఓం భూమిష్థాయై నమ:
ఓం జాహ్నవ్యై నమ:
ఓం జన పూజితాయై నమ:
ఓం శాస్త్ర్ర్రాయై నమ:
ఓం శాస్త్ర మయాయై నమ:
ఓం నిత్యాయై నమ:
ఓం శుభాయై నమ:
ఓం శుభ ప్రధాయై
ఓం చంద్రార్ధ మస్తకాయై నమ:
ఓం భారత్యై నమ:
ఓం భ్రామర్యై నమ:
ఓం కల్పాయై నమ:
ఓం కరాళ్యై నమ:
ఓం కృష్ఠ పింగళాయై నమ:
ఓం బ్రాహ్మే నమ:
ఓం నారాయణ్యై నమ:
ఓం రౌద్ర్ర్యై నమ:
ఓం చంద్రామృత పరివృతాయై నమ:
ఓం జేష్ఠాయై నమ:
ఓం ఇందిరాయై నమ:
ఓం మహా మాయాయై నమ:
ఓం జగత్వృష్థాధి కారిణ్యై నమ:
ఓం బ్రహ్మాండ కోటి సంస్థానాయై నమ:
ఓం కామిన్యై నమ:
ఓం కమలాయై నమ:
ఓం కాత్యాయన్యై నమ:
ఓం కలాతీతాయై నమ:
ఓం  కాల సంహార కారిణ్యై నమ:
ఓం యోగ నిష్ఠాయై నమ:
ఓం యోగి గమ్యాయై నమ:
ఓం తపస్విన్యై నమ:
ఓం జ్జాన రూపాయై నమ:
ఓం నిరాకారాయై నమ:
ఓం భక్తాభీష్ఠ ఫల ప్రదాయై నమ:
ఓం భూతాత్మికాయై నమ:
ఓం భూత మాత్రే నమ:
ఓం భూతేశాయై నమ:
ఓం భూత ధారిణ్యై నమ:
ఓం స్వదానారీ మద్యగతాయై నమ:
ఓం షడాధారాది వర్ధిన్యై  నమ:
ఓం మోహితాయై నమ:
ఓం శుభ్రాయై నమ:
ఓం సూక్ష్మాయై నమ:
ఓం మాత్రాయై నమ:
ఓం  నిరాలసాయై నమ:
ఓం నిమగ్నాయై నమ:
ఓం నీల సంకాశాయై నమ:
ఓం నిత్యానందాయై నమ:
ఓం హరాయై నమ:
ఓం పరాయై నమ:
ఓం సర్వ జ్జాన ప్రదాయై నమ:
ఓం ఆనందాయై నమ:
ఓం సత్యాయై నమ:
ఓం దుర్లభ రూపిణ్యై నమ:
ఓం సరస్వత్యై నమ:
ఓం సర్వ గతాయై నమ:
ఓం సర్వాభీష్ఠ ప్రదాయిన్యై నమ:

విజయదశమి  శ్రీ రాజ రాజేశ్వరీ దేవి పూజ

శ్రీ రాజరాజేశ్వరి అష్టోత్తర శతనామావళి


ఓం త్రిపురాయై నమః
ఓం షోడశ్యై /
 మాత్రే నమః
ఓం త్ర్యక్షరాయై నమః
ఓం త్రితయాయై /
త్రయ్యై నమః
ఓం సుందర్యై /
సుముఖ్యై నమః
ఓం సేవ్యాయై నమః
ఓం సామవేదపారాయణాయై నమః
ఓం శారదాయై నమః
ఓం శబ్దనిలయాయై నమః
ఓం సాగరాయై నమః
ఓం సరిదంబరాయై నమః
ఓం సరితాంవరాయై నమః
ఓం శుద్దాయై /
శుద్దతనవే నమః
ఓం సాద్వ్యై నమః
ఓం శివద్యానపరాయణాయై నమః
ఓం స్వామిన్యై నమః
ఓం శంభువనితాయై నమః
ఓం శాంభవ్యై /
సరస్వత్యై నమః
ఓం సముద్రమథిన్యై నమః
ఓం శీఘ్రగామిన్యై నమః
ఓం శీఘ్రసిద్దిదాయై నమః
ఓం సాధుసేవ్యాయై నమః
ఓం సాధుగమ్యాయై నమః
ఓం సాధుసంతుష్టమానసాయై నమః
ఓం ఖట్వాంగదారిణ్యై నమః
ఓం ఖర్వాయై నమః
ఓం ఖడ్గఖర్వరదారిణ్యై నమః
ఓం షడ్వర్గభావరహితాయై నమః
ఓం షడ్వర్గచారికాయై నమః
ఓం షడ్వర్గాయై నమః
ఓం షడంగాయై నమః
ఓం షోడాయై నమః
ఓం షోడశవార్షిక్యై నమః
ఓం హ్రతురూపాయై నమః
ఓం క్రతుమత్యై నమః
ఓం ఋభుక్షాకతుమండితాయై నమః
ఓం కవర్గాదిపవర్గాంతాయై నమః
ఓం అంతఃస్థాయై నమః
ఓం అంతరూపిణ్యై నమః
ఓం అకారాయై నమః
ఓం ఆకారరహితాయై నమః
ఓం కాల్మృత్యుజరాపహాయై నమః
ఓం తన్వ్యై / తత్వేశ్వర్యై నమః
ఓం టారాయై నమః
ఓం త్రివర్షాయై నమః
ఓం జ్ఞానరూపిణ్యై నమః
ఓం కాళ్యై /
 కరాళ్యై నమః
ఓం కామేశ్యై నమః
ఓం చాయాయై నమః
ఓం సంజ్ఞాయై నమః
అరుంధత్యై నమః
ఓం నిర్వికల్పాయై నమః
ఓం మహావేగాయై నమః
ఓం మహోత్సాహాయై నమః
ఓం మహోదర్యై నమః
ఓం మేఘాయై నమః
ఓం బలకాయై నమః
ఓం విమలాయై నమః
ఓం విమలజ్ఞానదాయిన్యై నమః
ఓం గౌర్యై నమః
ఓం వసుంధరాయై నమః
ఓం గోప్ర్యై నమః
ఓం గవాంపతినివేషితాయై నమః
ఓం భగాంగాయై నమః
ఓం భగరూపాయై నమః
ఓం భక్తిభావపరాయణాయై నమః
ఓం ఛిన్నమస్తాయై నమః
ఓం ఓం మహాధూమాయై నమః
ఓం ధూమ్రవిభూషణాయై నమః
ఓం ధర్మకర్మాదిరహితాయై నమః
ఓం ధర్మకర్మపారాయణాయై నమః
ఓం సీతాయై నమః
ఓం మాతంగిన్యై నమః
ఓం మేధాయై నమః
ఓం మధుదైత్యవినాశిన్యై నమః
ఓం భైరవ్యై నమః
ఓం భువనాయై నమః
ఓం మాత్రే నమః
ఓం అభయదాయై నమః
ఓం భవసుందర్యై నమః
ఓం భావుకాయై నమః
ఓం బగళాయై నమః
ఓం కృత్యాయై నమః
ఓం బాలాయై నమః
ఓం త్రిపురసుందర్యై నమః
ఓం రోహిణ్యై నమః
ఓం రేవత్యై నమః
ఓం రమ్యాయై నమః
ఓం రంభాయై నమః
ఓం రావణవందితాయై నమః
ఓం శతయ్జ్ఞమయాయై నమః
ఓం సత్త్వాయై నమః
ఓం శత్క్రుతవరప్రదాయై నమః
ఓం శతచంద్రాననాయై నమః
ఓం దేవ్యై నమః
ఓం సహ్స్రాదిత్యసన్నిభాయై నమః
ఓం సోమసూర్యాగ్నినయనాయై నమః
ఓం వ్యాఘ్రచర్మాంబరావృతాయై నమః
ఓం అర్ధేందుధారిణ్యై నమః
ఓం మత్తాయై నమః
ఓం మదిరాయై నమః
ఓం మదిరేక్షణాయై నమః

నైవేద్యము


దశమి రోజు  శ్రీ రాజరాజేశ్వరీదేవి  (విజయ దశమి-దసరా) పులిహోర, గారెలు, బూరెలు

ఆర్ద్రాం యః కరిణీం యష్టిం సువర్ణాం హేమమాలినీమ్ |
సూర్యాం హిరణ్మయీం లక్ష్మీం జాతవేదో మ ఆవహ ||
నానోపహారరూపం చ నానారససమన్వితం |
నానాస్వాదుకరం చైవ నైవేద్యం ప్రతిగృహ్యతామ్ ||

ఓం భూర్బువస్సువః ఓం తత్సవితుర్వరేణ్యం భర్గోదేవస్య ధీమహి ధియోయోనః ప్రచోదయాత్
సత్యంత్వర్తేన పరిషించామి అమృతమస్తు అమృతోపస్తరణమసి శ్రీ దుర్గా   దేవి యే నమః  (ప్రసాదం నివేదయామి).

ఓం ప్రాణాయస్వాహా, ఓమ్ అపానాయస్వాహా, ఓంవ్యానాయ స్వాహా
ఓమ్ ఉదానాయ స్వాహా ఓం సమానాయ స్వాహా మధ్యే మధ్యే పానీయం సమర్పయామి.  (నీరు వదలాలి.)

మధ్యే మధ్యే పానీయం సమర్పయామి | అమృతాపి ధానమసి | ఉత్తరాపోశనం సమర్పయామి | హస్తౌ ప్రక్షాళయామి | పాదౌ ప్రక్షాళయామి | శుద్ధాచమనీయం సమర్పయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ లలితా దేవ్యై నమః నైవేద్యం సమర్పయామి |

 (తాంబూలము నిచ్చి కర్పూరమును వెలిగించి చూపవలెను)



తాంబూలం   (తాంబూలము నిచ్చి కర్పూరమును వెలిగించి చూపవలెను)

తాం మ ఆవహ జాతవేదో లక్ష్మీమనపగామినీమ్ |
యస్యాం హిరణ్యం ప్రభూతం గావో దాస్యోఽశ్వా-
-న్విన్దేయం పురుషానహమ్ ||
తాంబూలం చ వరం రమ్యం కర్పూరాది సువాసితం |
జిహ్వాజాడ్యచ్ఛేదకరం తాంబూలం దేవి గృహ్యతామ్ ||
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః తాంబూలం సమర్పయామి |

నీరాజనం –
సంమ్రాజం చ విరాజంచాభిశ్రీర్ యా చ నో గృహే |
లక్ష్మీ రాష్ట్రస్య యా ముఖే తయా మా సంసృజామసి |
కర్పూరదీపతేజస్త్వం అజ్ఞానతిమిరాపహ |
దేవీప్రీతికరం చైవ మమ సౌఖ్యం వివర్ధయ ||
సంతత శ్రీరస్తు సమస్త మంగళాని భవంతు |
నిత్య శ్రీరస్తు నిత్యమంగళాని భవంతు ||
ఓం శ్రీ లలితా దేవ్యై నమః కర్పూర నీరాజనం సమర్పయామి |
నీరాజనానంతరం శుద్ధాచమనీయం సమర్పయామి | నమస్కరోమి |

మంత్రపుష్పం –
(దుర్గా సూక్తం చూ.)
సద్భావపుష్పాణ్యాదాయ సహజప్రేమరూపిణే |
లోకమాత్రే దదామ్యద్య ప్రీత్యా సంగృహ్యతాం సదా ||
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః మంత్రపుష్పాణి సమర్పయామి |

ఆత్మప్రదక్షిణ నమస్కారం –
యానికాని చ పాపాని జన్మాంతరకృతాని చ
తాని తాని ప్రణశ్యంతి ప్రదక్షిణ పదే పదే |
పాపోఽహం పాపకర్మాఽహం పాపాత్మా పాపసంభవ |
త్రాహిమాం కృపయా దేవీ శరణాగతవత్సలే |
అన్యథా శరణం నాస్తి త్వమేవ శరణం మమ |
తస్మాత్కారుణ్య భావేన రక్ష రక్ష మహేశ్వరీ |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః ఆత్మప్రదక్షిణ నమస్కారాన్ సమర్పయామి |

సాష్టాంగ నమస్కారం –
ఉరసా శిరసా దృష్ట్యా మనసా వచసా తథా |
పద్భ్యాం కరాభ్యాం కర్ణాభ్యాం ప్రణామోఽష్టాంగముచ్యతే ||
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః సాష్టాంగ నమస్కారాన్ సమర్పయామి |

సర్వోపచారాః –
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః ఛత్రం ఆచ్ఛాదయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః చామరైర్వీజయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః నృత్యం దర్శయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః గీతం శ్రావయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః ఆందోళికాన్నారోహయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః అశ్వానారోహయామి |
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః గజానారోహయామి |
యద్యద్ద్రవ్యమపూర్వం చ పృథివ్యామతిదుర్లభమ్ |
దేవభూపార్హభోగ్యం చ తద్ద్రవ్యం దేవి గృహ్యతాం ||
శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః సమస్త రాజ్ఞీయోపచారాన్ దేవ్యోపచారాన్ సమర్పయామి |

క్షమా ప్రార్థన –
అపరాధ సహస్రాణి క్రియంతేఽహర్నిశం మయా |
దాసోఽయమితి మాం మత్వా క్షమస్వ పరమేశ్వరీ |
ఆవాహనం న జానామి న జానామి విసర్జనం |
పూజావిధిం న జానామి క్షమస్వ పరమేశ్వరీ |
మంత్రహీనం క్రియాహీనం భక్తిహీనం మహేశ్వరీ |
యత్పూజితం మయా దేవీ పరిపూర్ణం తదస్తుతే |

అనయా శ్రీసూక్త విధాన పూర్వక ధ్యాన ఆవాహనాది షోడశోపచార పూజనేన భగవతీ సర్వాత్మికా శ్రీ లలితా దేవీ సుప్రీతా సుప్రసన్నా వరదా భవంతు ||

తీర్థప్రసాద గ్రహణం –
అకాలమృత్యహరణం సర్వవ్యాధినివారణం ||
సమస్తపాపక్షయకరం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవీ పాదోదకం పావనం శుభం ||
ఓం శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవ్యై నమః ప్రసాదం శీరసా గృహ్ణామి |

ఓం శాంతిః శాంతిః శాంతిః ||

శ్రీ దుర్గా  దేవి యే నమః సువర్ణ మంత్రపుష్పం సమర్పయామి
ప్రదక్షిణ నమస్కారాన్ సమర్పయామి

అనయా మయా కృత యధాశక్తి పూజాయచ శ్రీ దుర్గా దేవి సుప్రీతః సుప్రసన్నో వరదో భవతు

(అనుకొని నమస్కరించుకొనిదేవుని వద్దగల అక్షతలు ,పుష్పములు శిరస్సున ధరించవలసినది.)

అపరాధ క్షమాపణ స్తోత్రం

అపరాధశతం కృత్వా జగదంబేతి చోచ్చరేత్|
యాం గతిం సమవాప్నోతి న తాం బ్రహ్మాదయః సురాః ||1||
సాపరాధో‌உస్మి శరణాం ప్రాప్తస్త్వాం జగదంబికే|
ఇదానీమనుకంప్యో‌உహం యథేచ్ఛసి తథా కురు ||2||
అఙ్ఞానాద్విస్మృతేభ్రాంత్యా యన్న్యూనమధికం కృతం|
తత్సర్వ క్షమ్యతాం దేవి ప్రసీద పరమేశ్వరీ ||3||
కామేశ్వరీ జగన్మాతాః సచ్చిదానందవిగ్రహే|
గృహాణార్చామిమాం ప్రీత్యా ప్రసీద పరమేశ్వరీ ||4||
సర్వరూపమయీ దేవీ సర్వం దేవీమయం జగత్|
అతో‌உహం విశ్వరూపాం త్వాం నమామి పరమేశ్వరీం ||5||
పూర్ణం భవతు తత్ సర్వం త్వత్ప్రసాదాన్మహేశ్వరీ
యదత్ర పాఠే జగదంబికే మయా విసర్గబింద్వక్షరహీనమీరితమ్| ||6||
తదస్తు సంపూర్ణతం ప్రసాదతః సంకల్పసిద్ధిశ్చ సదైవ జాయతాం ||7||
భక్త్యాభక్త్యానుపూర్వం ప్రసభకృతివశాత్ వ్యక్తమవ్యక్తమంబ ||8||
తత్ సర్వం సాంగమాస్తాం భగవతి త్వత్ప్రసాదాత్ ప్రసీద ||9||
ప్రసాదం కురు మే దేవి దుర్గేదేవి నమో‌உస్తుతే ||10||
||ఇతి అపరాధ క్షమాపణ స్తోత్రం సమాప్తం||

  శ్రీ దుర్గా  దేవి పూజ సమాప్తం.


శమీపూజ

విజయదశమినాడు శమీపూజ చేయడం ఆనవాయితీ. 

‘‘శమీ శమయతే పాపం శమీ శత్రు వినాశనీ,
అర్జునస్య ధనుర్ధారీ రామస్య ప్రియవాదినీ.
శమీ శమయతే పాపం శమీలోహిత కంటకా,
ధారిణ్యర్జున బాణానాం రామస్య ప్రియవాదినీ.
కరిష్యమాణ యాత్రాయాం యథాకాలం సుఖంమయా,
తత్ర నిర్విఘ్న కర్త్రీత్వం భవ శ్రీరామపూజితే.”

విజయదశమి రోజు సాయంత్రం నక్షత్ర దర్శన సమయాన శమీవృక్షం (జమ్మి చెట్టు) వద్ద  అపరాజితా దేవిని (శ్రీ రాజ రాజేశ్వరీ దేవి) పూజించి, పై శ్లోకం పఠిస్తూ చెట్టుకు ప్రదక్షిణలు చేయాలి.  ఇలా చేయుట వల్ల అమ్మవారి కృపతోపాటు శనిదోష నివారణ కూడా జరుగుతుందని ప్రతీతి .

Thursday, September 28, 2017

Study, Teaching and Learning of Religion in Modern Institutions




American Academy of Relgion

https://www.aarweb.org/

What is religion

http://studyreligion.org/what/index.html



Pagan Theology: Paganism as a World Religion


Michael York
NYU Press, 2003 - Political Science - 239 pages

Michael York's Pagan Theology is a tour through paganism's multiple forms in space and time. York does an admirable job of making paganism visible as an important area of study in religion. Pagan Theology will appeal to an international audience of scholars and practitioners of Paganism, but should also be of interest to scholars of religion more broadly, since York examines paganism in a global context, and as it occurs within other world religions, as root religion.-The Pomegranate York has collected a great diversity of global religious information to compare and contrast the fundamental and universal religious elements they contain. This appears to be his life work. -Journal of the American Academy of Religion

There is interesting and valuable information in Pagan Theory. The author has done his homework, and much of what he writes is taken from first-hand observation. -facingnorth.net ) Michael York has laid the intellectual groundwork for a new approach to theology, one which hopefully might reconcile the appalling feuding ones of our time. -The Quest

York endeavors to demonstrate that paganism in its many varieties has an underlying unity. -Library Journal

In Pagan Theology, Michael York situates Paganism-one of the fastest-growing spiritual orientations in the West-as a world religion. He provides an introduction to, and expansion of, the concept of Paganism and provides an overview of Paganism's theological perspective and practice. He demonstrates it to be a viable and distinguishable spiritual perspective found around the world today in such forms as Chinese folk religion, Shinto, tribal religions, and neo-Paganism in the West. While adherents to many of these traditions do not use the word pagan to describe their beliefs or practices, York contends that there is an identifiable position possessing characteristics and understandings in common for which the label pagan is appropriate. After outlining these characteristics, he examines many of the world's major religions to explore religious behaviors in other religions which are not themselves pagan, but which have pagan elements. In the course of examining such behavior, York provides rich and lively descriptions of religions in action, including Buddhism and Hinduism. Pagan Theology claims Paganism's place as a world religion, situating it as a religion, a behavior, and a theology. Michael York is Principal Lecturer, Sophia Centre for the Study of Cultural Astronomy and Astrology, and Director of the Bath Archive for Contemporary Religious Affairs, Bath Spa University College, UK.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Xn8VCgAAQBAJ