Thursday, March 22, 2012

Hind Swaraj - Independence for India - M.K. Gandhi

 Mahatma Gandhi on Independence for India - 1908 Publication

About the Book

Gandhi wrote this book in 1908. The concluding paragraph is " I have endeavoured to explain it (Swaraj) as I understand it (Swaraj), and my conscience testifies that my life henceforth is dedicated to its attainment."
Gandhiji explained his concept of swaraj and also methods of how to attain it in this book. He used and tried to use methods he had delineated in this book and brought independence to India. This book is considered as an essential means to understanding the philosophy as well as practical work of Gandhiji. I plan to write a summary of this book in this knol. Initially some important statements from the book will be given and later  the summary will be attempted.

Important Thoughts

"It is a bad habit to say that another man's thoughts are bad and ours only are good and that those holding different views from ours are the enemies of the country"

"The seed in never seen. It works underneath the ground, is itself destroyed,and the tree which rises above the ground is alone seen."
"The English have not taken India. We have given it to them. They are not in India because of their strength, but because we keep them."
"Humdug there undoubtedly is about all religions. Where there is light, there is also shadow."
"India cannot cease to be one nation because people belonging to different religions live in it. The introduction of foreigners does not necessarily destroy the nation, they merge in it. A country is one nation only when such a condition obtains in it."
"God set a limit to a man's locomotive ambition in the construction of his body. Man immediately proceeded to discover means of overriding the limit. God gifted man with intellect that he might know his Maker. Man abused it so that he might forget his Maker."
On Globalization
"I am so constructed that I can only serve my immediate neighbours, but in my conceit I pretend to have discovered that I must with my body serve every individual in the Universe. In thus attempting the impossible, man comes into contact with different natures, different religions, and is utterly confounded."

Books Recommended by Gandhi to Understand The Ideas of Hind Swaraj

Blount: A New Crusade
Carpenter: Civilization, Its Cause and Cure

Mazzini: Duties of Man

Maine: Village Communities
Plato: Defence and Death of Socrates (May be chapter)

Ruskin: A Joy for Ever
Ruskin: Unto This Last 

Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
Thoreau: Life without Principle

Tolstoy: The Kingdom of God Is within You
Tolstoy: What is Art?
Tolstoy: The Slavery of Our Times
Tolstoy: The First Step
Tolstoy: How Shall We Escape

Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
Thoreau: Life without Principle

Books of Tolstoy for online reading

Some Chapters from Hind Swaraj

Pukar, an NGO in Mumbai organized a three day seminar on Hind Swaraj during 18th to 20th December, 2009 at Queens Mansion, Fort, Mumbai.
For details visit
I attended one session of the seminar on 20th December
Original Knol - hind-swaraj-independence-for-india-m-k/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1960

Friday, March 16, 2012

India - Budget 2012-2013

Vision India 2047


> In the Budget estimates for 2012-13, the Gross Tax Receipts are estimated at Rs 10, 77,612 crore which is an increase of 15.6 per cent over the Budget Estimates and 19.5 per cent over the revised estimates for 2011-12. After devolution to States, the net tax to the Centre in 2012-13 is estimated at Rs 7,71,071crore.

> The Non Tax Revenue Receipts are estimated at Rs 1,64,614crore and Non-debt Capital Receipts at Rs 41,650 crore. The total expenditure for 2012-13 is budgeted at Rs 14,90,925 crore. Of this Rs 5,21,025crore is the Plan Expenditure while Rs 9,69,900 crore is budgeted as Non Plan Expenditure.

> Individual income up to Rs 2 lakh will be free from income tax; income upto Rs 1.8 lakh was exempt in 2011-12. Income above Rs 5 lakh and upto Rs 10 lakh now carries tax at the rate of 20 per cent; the 20% tax slab was from Rs 5 lakh to Rs 8 lakh in 2011-12. A deduction of up to Rs 10,000 is now available for interest from savings bank accounts. Within the existing limit for deduction allowed for health insurance, a deduction of up to Rs 5000 is being allowed for preventive health check-up. Senior citizens not having income from business will now not need to pay advance tax.

> A provision of Rs 1,93,407crore for Defence Services including Rs 79,579 crore for capital expenditure.

> Rs 20,208 crore in the total Plan Outlay for the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation in 2012-13. The outlay for Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) is being increased to Rs 9217 crore in 2012-13.

> covering 8,800 km. under NHDP next year and increase in allocation of the Road Transport and Highways Ministry by14 per cent to Rs 25,360 crore in 2012-13.

> an allocation of Rs 15,850 crore has been made for ICDS scheme which is an increase of 58% and Rs 11,937 crore for National Programme of Mid-Day Meals in schools for the year 2012-13.

The Finance Minister proposed an increase in allocation by 21.7 per cent for Right to Education – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to Rs 25,555 crore and by 29 per cent for Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan to Rs 3,124 crore

Union Budget 2012-13 Summary Indian Express

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Mahatma Gandhi on Brahmacharya

The full and proper meaning of Brahmacharya is search of Brahma. Brahma pervades everything and can, therefore, be searched by diving into and realizing the inner self. This realization is impossible without complete control of the senses. Brahmacharya thus means control in thought, word, and in all places.
Young India, 5.6.1924
I personally feel brahmacharya must mean education. Every individual of the society has to go through the ashram of education (brahmacharya). Giving a meaning of a person not married created a lot of confusion. Once a person enters married life he cannot devote his full attention to education. During brahmacharya, one devotes full attention to education. In the ancient days, brahmachary has no responsibility towards  his family. He used to go alms and bring and give it to his teacher for running the ashram. Till he completed his education he has no responsibility of his family.
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Mahatma Gandhi on Teachers

An acharya is one who behaves himself and thus sets us an example of good behaviour.
The Diary of Mahadev Desai
I belong to the old school which believed in reverence for teachers.
To the students
I have always felt that the true text book for the pupil is his teacher
Wit and wisdom of Mahatma Gandhi, p.223
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Mahatma Gandhi on Embracing Poverty Voluntarily

Jesus, Muhammed, Buddha, Nanak, Kabir, chaitanya, Shankara, Dayanand, and  Ramakrishna were men who exercised an immense influence over and moulded the character of thousands of men. The world is richer for their having lived in it. And they were all men who deliberately embraced poverty as their lot.

 (Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, G.A. Natesan, Madras, 1933, p.353)  

Civilization in the real sense of the term consists not in the multiplication but in the deliberate and voluntary reduction of wants, which promotes real happiness and contentment and increases the capacity for service. One can reduce one’s wants by perseverance, and the reduction of wants make for happiness-a healthy body and a peaceful mind.

 From Yeravada Mandir, 1945
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Mahatma Gandhi on Wages to Workmen

A satisfactory solution of the condition of labour must include the following:


(1) The hours of labour must leave the workmen some hours of leisure;

(2) They must get facilities for their own education;

(3) Provision must be made for an adequate supply of milk, clothing nad necessary education for their children;

(4) There should be sanitary dwellings for th workmen;

(5) They should be in a position to save enough to maintain themselves during their old age.

 Young India, 11.3 1920.
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Mahatma Gandhi on Indian Tradition

Let us study our Eastern institutions in that spirit of scientific enquiry and we shall evolve a truer socialism and a truer communism than the world has yet dreamed of. It is surely wrong to presume that Western socialism or communism is the last work on the question of mass poverty.
 Anand Bazar Patrika, 3.8.1934.
 If you do not know Ramayana and Mahabharata, then you have no right to claim yourself to be an Indian
Thoughts Of Mahatma Gandhi
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Mahatma Gandhi on Industrialisation

Machinery has its place, it has come to stay. But it must not be allowed to displace necessary human labour. I would welcome every improvement in the cottage machine, but I know that it is criminal to displace hand labour by the introduction of power-driven spindles unless one is at the same time ready to give millions of farmers some other occupation in their houses.
 Young India, 5.11.1925
The economics and civilization of a country where the pressure of population on land is greatest are and must be different from those of a country where the pressure is least. Sparsely populated, America may have need of machinery. India may not need it at all. Where there are millions and millions of units of idle labour, it is no use thinking of labour-saving devices.
 Harijan, 11.5.1935
Thoughts Of Mahatma Gandhi
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Mahatma Gandhi on Communism

Socialism and communism of the West are based on certain conceptions which are fundamentally different from ours. One such conception is their belief in the essential selfishness of human nature.  I do not subscribe to it for I know that the essential difference between man and the brute is that the former can respond to the call of the spirit in him, can rise superior to the passions that he owns in common with the brute and, therefore, superior to selfishness and violence, which belong to the brute nature and not to the immortal spirit of man. That is the fundamental conception of Hinduism, which has years of penance and austerity at the back of discovery of this truth.

 Amrit Bazar Patrika, 2.8.1934


It goes without saying that I cannot hope to bring about economic equality of my conception, if I am the owner of fifty motor cars or even ten bighas of land, For that I have to reduce myself to the level of the poorest of the poor. That is what I have been trying to do for the last fifty years or more, and so I claim to be a foremost Communist.

 Harizan, 31.3.1946
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Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Mahatma Gandhi on Socialism

Socialism was not born with the discovery of the misuse of capital by capitalists. As I have contended, socialism, even communism, is explicit in the first verse of Ishopanishad.
 Harijan, 20.2.1937  
Socialism is a beautiful word and so far as I am aware in socialism all the members of society are equal – none low, none high.
 Harijan, 13.7.1947
Original Knol Number - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 914

Mahatma Gandhi on Swaraj

The word Swaraj is a sacred word, a Vedic word, meaning self-rule and self-restraint, andnot freedom from all restraint which ‘independence’ often means.

 Young India, 19.3.1931


Real Swaraj will come not by the acquisition of authority by a few but by the acquisition of the capacity by all to resist authority when it is abused.

 Young India, 29.1.1925


Swaraj can be maintained, only when there is majority of loyal nad patriotic people to whom the good of the nation is paramount above all other considerations whatever including their personal profit.

Young India, 28.7.1921

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Mahatma Gandhi on India

I feel that India’s mission is different from that of others. India is fitted for the religious supremacy of the world… India can will all by soul force. History supplies numerous instances to prove that brute force is nothing before soul force. Poets have sung about it and seers have described their experiences.

(Speeches and Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, G.A. Natesan, Madras, 1933)


I would like to see India free and strong so that she may offer herself a willing and pure sacrifice for the betterment of the world. … He impotence affects the whole world.


(Young India, 17-9-1925)

I do not want India to rise on the ruin of other Nations
Original Knol - 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 910

Saturday, March 10, 2012

Green Cities and Towns of India - Green Certification of Indian Cities and Towns

Green Movement - Introduction

Green movement is related to the preservation of environment, popularly termed as sustainable development and environment.

It is difficult to find a good explanation of green movement even using the power of Google search engine (  )

The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO)

The Ministry of Urban  Development, Government  of India, is  nodal  Ministry in  charge of various aspects of Urban Development including Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in the Country. The Ministry formulates the policies and strategies pertaining to various aspects of Urban Development including Water Supply, Sanitation and Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Country  and also provides technical and financial assistance to the States.

The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) is Technical Wing of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, and deals with the matters related to Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Including Solid Waste Management in the Country.

The CPHEEO was constituted under the erstwhile Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) in 1953 as per the recommendations of the Environmental Hygiene Committee to deal with Water Supply and Sanitation in the Country.  In 1973-74, the CPHEEO was affiliated to the Ministry of Urban Development (erstwhile Ministry of Works & Housing).Since then, it is functioning as the technical wing of the Ministry.  

 As per the Constitution of India, “Water, that is to say, water supplies" falls within the legislative jurisdiction of the State Governments vide item 17 of the List II-State List under Seventh Schedule referred to in the Article 246(3) of the Constitution and States are vested with the constitutional right to plan, implement, operate and maintain water supply projects. 

Though water supply and sanitation is a State subject, the policies, strategies and guidelines are being provided by CPHEEO to the States & UTs Governments including Municipal Corporations / Committees. The CPHEEO plays a vital role in processing the schemes posed for external funding agencies including World Bank / JBIC/ ADB/ and Bilateral and Multilateral funding agencies and institutional financing such as LIC.  It acts as an Advisory body at Central level to advise the concerned State agencies and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in implementation, operation & maintenance of urban water supply, sanitation and Solid Waste Management projects and helps to adopt latest technologies in these sub sectors.

Besides, the CPHEEO also implements centrally sponsored Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP) for small towns (scrutinizing / approving the schemes received from State Departments from techno-economic angle), Solid Waste Management in 10 airfield towns, sponsors research studies, organizes training courses for the in-service engineers working in the water supply and sanitation sector.

PHE training was launched in 1956 as a Plan Programme to provide training to in-service Public Health Engineers so as to keep them abreast with the latest know-how in the field of Public Health / Environmental Engineering. At present, it sponsors Post Graduate Courses in Public Health Engineering / Environmental Engineering through 12 recognized academic institutions and over 60 Short Term & Refresher Courses through 21 academic institutions and training institutes under field departmensts.

In collaboration with UNDP, CPHEEO  has brought out computer software for design of water supply distribution networks, sewerage networks, economical size of pumping main and distributed them to all the States & ULBs for extensive use. 

CPHEEO  has prepared and published the following Manuals, which are technical guide books for the help of field engineers:

    *    Manual on Water Supply & Treatment, Third Edition, Revised-updated, May 1999.
    *    Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment, Second Edition, 1993.
    *   Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2000.
    *   Manual on Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply systems, 2005.



National Urban Sanitation Policy - India

(October 2008)

Government has identified 100% sanitation as a goal during the 11th Five Year Plan. The ultimate objective is that all urban dwellers will have access to and be able to use safe and hygienic sanitation facilities and arrangements so that no one needs to  defecate in the open.

               The vision of the policy is that all Indian cities and towns become totally sanitised, healthy and liveable and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women. The focus of the Policy is on Awareness Generation and Behavioural Change by generating awareness about sanitation and its linkages with public and environmental health amongst communities and institutions and also promoting mechanisms to bring about and sustain behavioural changes aimed at adoption of healthy sanitation practices;

In order to achieve this goal, the following activities shall be undertaken:

    * Promoting access to households with safe sanitation facilities (including    proper disposal arrangements);
Promoting community-planned and managed toilets wherever necessary, for groups of households who have constraints of space, tenure or economic constraints in gaining access to individual facilities;

    * Adequate availability and 100 % upkeep and management of Public Sanitation facilities in all Urban Areas, to rid them of open defecation and environmental hazards;

Integrated City Wide Sanitation

Re-orienting Institutions and mainstreaming Sanitation by

    * Mainstreaming thinking, planning and implementing measures related to sanitation in all sectors and departmental domains as a cross-cutting issue, especially in all urban management endeavours;
    * Strengthening national, state, city and local institutions (public, private and community) to accord priority to sanitation provision, including planning, implementation and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) management;
    * Extending access to proper sanitation facilities for poor communities and other un-served settlements;

Sanitary and Safe Disposal

100 % of human excreta and liquid wastes from all sanitation facilities including toilets must be disposed-off safely. In order to achieve this goal, the following activities shall be undertaken:

    * Promoting proper functioning of network-based sewerage systems and ensuring connections of households to them,  wherever possible;

    * Promoting recycle and reuse of treated waste water for non-potable applications, wherever possible, will be encouraged.

    * Promoting proper disposal and treatment of sludge from on-site installations (septic tanks, pit latrines, etc.);

    * Ensuring that all the human wastes are collected safely confined and disposed-off after treatment so as not to cause any hazard to public health or the environment;

Proper Operation and Maintenance of all Sanitary Installations:

    * Promoting proper usage, regular upkeep and maintenance of household, community and public sanitation facilities;

    * Strengthening Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to provide or cause to provide, sustainable sanitation services delivery

For achievement of the above goals, the government will support the following:

    *  States will be encouraged to prepare State Level Sanitation Strategies within a period of 2 years. Cities will be urged to prepare model City Sanitation Plans within a period of 2 years.  Each state shall formulate its own State Urban Sanitation Strategy taking into account its local urban context. Cities will operationalize the state strategy by preparing and implementing City Sanitation Plans. The states will also be encouraged to formulate State Reward Schemes. A state level apex body will monitor the implementation of the state strategy, and a nodal agency will be appointed for planning and implementation.  Each state and its cities would need to devise effective institutional arrangements at the city level.  However, the ULB’s (or their equivalent structures) must be at the centre of all urban sanitation activities.
    * Providing assistance for the preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) as per city sanitation plan as and when requests for funding are received;
    * Promote public-private partnership in respect of key projects/activities identified in the city sanitation plan;
    * Provide technical assistance and support for awareness generation and capacity building to states and cities within this financial year;
    * Periodic rating of all Class 1 cities (423) in respect of Sanitation and recognition of best performers by instituting a National Award within this financial year; The award scheme will take into account output related parameters such as complete elimination of open defecation, elimination of open scavenging and personal protection to sanitary workers, safe collection and disposal of total human excreta, recycling and reuse of treated wastewater for non-potable applications, efficient and safe management of storm water and solid waste management, process related parameters such as monitoring and evaluation, observance of proper O&M practices, clear assignment of institutional responsibilities, sanctions for deviance on the part of polluters and outcome related parameters such as improved quality of drinking water, reduction in water borne diseases etc. On the basis of the rating scheme, cities will be classified as Red, Black, Blue and Green which would denote and increasing level of achievement of good environmental and health outcomes.

               A National Advisory Group on Urban Sanitation (NAGUS) will be convened by the Ministry of Urban Development.  It will be broad based and will include representatives of the Ministries of Health, Social Justice and Empowerment, Housing and Urban Poverty alleviation, Water resources, external experts and representatives of State Governments National Advisory Group on Urban Sanitation will assist the Ministry of Urban Development in implementing the National Policy.Ministry of Urban development will set apart resources to the extent of Rs 50 crore over a five year period for activities such as National awareness generation campaign, Rating and National award scheme, Capacity building and training ,State level strategies and sample City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) and the National Advisory group on Urban sanitation

               The year 2008 has been declared the International year of Sanitation by the United Nations. The focus will be on raising awareness of the importance of sanitation and its impact on achieving the millennium development goals from three perspectives i.e hygiene, household sanitation and waste water, encouraging state governments and districts to promote and implement policies and actions for meeting the sanitation target and mobilising communities towards changing sanitation and hygiene practices through sanitation and health education campaigns.

               30.66 million urban households which form 35.49% of the urban households suffer inadequate access to sanitation facilities. 7.87% households defecate in the open, 5.48% use community latrines and 19.49% use shared latrines. More than 37% of the human excreta generated is unsafely disposed. The percentage of notified and non-notified slums without latrines is 17% and 51% respectively.  The National Urban Sanitation Policy approved by the Cabinet has been conceived taking these factors into consideration.

Source: Press Release Ministry of Urban Development (  )


First City Rating Exercise in India

The ranking was done on the basis of sanitation. Intention to implement the rating system was declared in the national sanitation policy.  The ranking procedure was described in some detail in  .

The ranking exercise results in marks for a maximum of 100. Cities getting 90 to 100 marks are given the green rating. Cities between 65 and 90 are given the blue rating. Cities between 33.5 and 65 are rated black and towns with score less than 33.5 are rated red.

The ratings were released by Union Urban Development Jaipal Reddy on Monday,  10th May 2010. The Minister said the purpose of this exercise is also to recognise better performers as well as to encourage other cities to perform better. The idea is to galvanise action in states and cities towards better sanitation. Minister also announced that Rs. 25 cr. will be spent on improving the sanitation.

Chandigarh got the highest marks of 73.480 and got the blue rating.
Greater Mumbai got 45 marks
Thane got 41 marks.

Important Cities and Marks

Ahmedabad (50)  Bengaluru (54)   Bhopal           Chennai (54)    Delhi (61)    Hyderabad (41)   
Jaipur (34)           Kolkata (49)        Lucknow (49)  Patna (38)       Pune (43)    Surat (69)

The full Ratings List of all cities : 
Rating Parameters:

Green Cities of USA

1. Burlington, Vermont
2. Ithaca, New York
3. Corvallis, Oregon
4. Springfield, Massachusetts
5. Wenatchee, Washington

For the bigger list of 25 cities


Reactions of City Administrations


Chandigarh administration is preparing a green code for the city to improve environment in the city stil more   )


City Sanitation Plans

Under national plan, cities are being encouraged to come up with sanitation plans.
See a tender notice by Agra Municipal Corporation for a sanitation plan (  )

Green Building Movement in Indian Cities

A monograph on number of Green Buildings in India - 2007


Other News Related to Green City Activities

CII developing Green rating system for cities, October  2009

New Culture of Urban Sanitation in Mumbai (1988)


Related Knols

Green Cities Movement - Ecocities Movement Around the World
Sustainable and green city development
Green Sustainable Communities - The Future
Getting Started in Green Building
Relaed Websites

Cities Alliance - Global Body



Knol Number 2530

Thursday, March 8, 2012

Mahatma Gandhi on Nationalism

The individual has to die for the family, the family has to die for the village, the village for the district, the district for the province, and the province for the country, … a country may be free in order that it may die, if necessary for the benefit of the world.
 Gandhiji in Indian Villages, p.170
It is impossible for one to be inter-nationalist without being a nationalist.
 Young India, 18.6.1923
Gandhi described selfless acts in the statement. While every individual tries to live, there are circumstances when an individual is prepared to die to protect his family. An entire family may fight enemies and die to protect the village. Gandhi extends the logic to entire country. To protect this world a country may sacrifice itself. Belief that this world is created by God and God blesses those people who strive for the welfare of a larger entity than themselves is brought out by  Gandhiji very well in one sentence. 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 912

Mahatma Gandhi on Villages

The cities are capable of taking care of themselves. It is the village we have to turn to. We have to disabuse them of their prejudice, their superstitions, their narrow outlook and we can do so in no other manner than that of staying amongst them and sharing their joys and sorrows and spreading education and intelligent information among them.
Young India, 30.3.1931
We have to show them that they can grow their vegetables, their greens, without much expense, and keep good health....
We have to teach them how to economize time, health and money....
I am talking like a missionary in this matter of food, because my mission is to make villages a thing of beauty.
Harijan, 1.3.1935

Mahatma Gandhi on Village Industries


The idea behind the village industries scheme is that we should look to the villagers for the supply of our daily needs and that, when we find that some needs are not so supplied, we should see whether with a little trouble and organization they cannot be profitably supplied by the villagers. In estimating the profit, we should think of the villager, not of ourselves. It may be that in the initial stages, we might have to pay a little more than the ordinary price and get an inferior article in the bargain. Things will improve, if we will interest ourselves in the supplier of our needs and insist on his doing and take the trouble of helping him to do better.


Harijan, 23.11.1934.


Village economy cannot be complete without the essential village industries such as hand-grinding, hand-pounding, soap-making, paper-making, match-making, tanning, oil-pressing, etc. Congressmen can interest themselves in these and, if they are villagers or will settle down in villages, they will give these industries a new life and a new dress. All should make it a point of honour to use only village article whenever and wherever available.


Constructive Programme, 1948,  p.15,

Village Exhibitions


1. There should be two models of village-one as is existing today and the other an improved one. The improved village will be clean all throughout. Its houses, its roads, its surroundings and its fields will be all clean. The condition of cattle should also improve. Books, charts, and pictures should be sued to show what industries give increased income and how.


2. It must show how to conduct the various village industries, wherefrom to obtain the needed implements, how to make them. The actual working of each industry should be demonstrated. Along with these the following should also find place:


(a) Ideal village diet.

(b) Comparison between village industry and machine industry.

© Model lessons on rearing animals.

(d) Art section.

(e) Model of village latrine.

(f) Farm-yard manure v. chemical manure

(g) Utilization of hides, bones, etc. of animals.

(h) Village music, musical instruments, village dramas.

(i) Village games, village akadas, forms exercise.

(j) Nai Talim

(k) Village medicine.

(l) Village maternity home.


Subject to the policy enunciated in the beginning, this list may be further expanded. What I have indicated is by way of example only, it should not be taken to be exhaustive. I have not made any mention of the Charkha and other village industries as they are taken for granted. Without them the exhibition will be absolutely useless.


Gram Udyog Patrika, July 1946.
We do not hear anything about villages and their plight these days. Have villages improved a lot? Or in this TV age, villages are not relevant and there is no important person in this country who is worried of poor people? 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 941

Mahatma Gandhi on Democracy

There is no human institution but has its dangers. The greater the institution the greater the chances of abuse. Democracy is a great institution and therefore it is liable to be greatly abused. The remedy, therefore, is not avoidance of democracy but reduction of possibility of abuse to a minimum.

Young India, 7.5.1931


A popular state can never act in advance of public opinion. If it goes against it, it will be destroyed.

Young India, 30.7.1931

Legislation in advance of public opinion is often worse than useless.
Young India, 29-1-1921

The democracy or the Swaraj of masses can never come through untruthful and violent means, for the simple reason that the natural corollary to their use would be to remove all opposition through the suppression or extermination of the antagonists.

Harijan, 27.5.1939


My notion of democracy is that under it the weakest should have the same opportunity as the strongest. That can never happen except through non-violence.

Harijan, 18.5.1940


True democracy cannot be worked by twenty men sitting at the centre. It has to be worked from below by the people of every village.


Harijan, 18.1.1948

I would dance with joy if I had to give up politics
Public opinion alone can keep a society pure and healthy

Original post 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 913

रक्षा बंधन - स्नेह बंधन - Raksha Bandhan - Hindi Article

 हमारे प्राचीन त्योहारों का कोई न कोई आधार होता है | कुछ नयी कथाएं भी उनके साथ जुड़ जाती हैं | रक्षा की अपेक्षा वाले इस त्यौहार के पीछे भी भगवान शंकर को राखी बाँधने की कथा आती है | जब राखी का यह सूत्र बहिन अपने भाई की कलाई पर बांधती है तब हमारे पंडितों के अनुसार एक मंत्र पढ़ा जाता है | वह इस प्रकार से है :
        येन बद्धो बली राजा  दानवेन्द्रो महाबलः |
        तेन त्वां प्रतिबद्धनामी रक्षे माचल माचल ||
अर्थात रक्षा के जिस सूत्र से महाबली राक्षसराज बली को बाँधा गया था, उसी धागे से मैं तुम्हें बांधती हूँ ; यह रक्षा में अचल रहे, अचल रहे | इस प्रकार इस त्यौहार से राजा बली की कथा भी जुडी हुई है | जो समस्त पृथ्वी के राजा थे व राक्षसराज थे |
मैं सोचता हूँ कि  मंत्र में देवताओं या ईश्वर  का नाम आना चाहिए न कि मनुष्यों या राक्षसों का | मंत्र देवताओं व ईश्वर के लिए ही होते हैं | मंत्र का अर्थ है कि आप जिस समय भी मंत्र से देव या ईश्वर का ध्यान कर रहे हैं, वे देव उसी समय आपकी अर्चना को सुन रहे हैं | जबकि यदि आप राक्षस या मनुष्य के नाम से मंत्र पढेंगे  तो वह दूर बैठा न आपके मन की बात जान पायेगा और न ही आपकी आवाज सुन पायेगा |
अब इस मंत्र में एक और विसंगति है | दूसरी पंक्ति में कहा जा रहा है कि वह सूत्र रक्षा में अचल रहे | किन्तु सूत्र उसी की रक्षा करता है जिस पर वह बाँधा जाता है | यहाँ बहिन अपने भाई के हाथ पर सूत्र बांधते हुए यह कह रही है कि यह सूत्र रक्षा में अचल रहे | जबकि यह त्यौहार इस भावना से मनाया जाता है कि राखी बांधते  हुए बहिन अपने भाई से अपनी  रक्षा की अपेक्षा करती है |
लगता है कि देवों के निमित्त जो वास्तविक मंत्र था वह कहीं खो गया है | और अब हमारी स्मृति मैं नहीं है | फिर भी  रक्षा बंधन का यह त्यौहार भाई और बहिन के बीच  स्नेह का बंधन है जो हर वर्ष आकर स्नेह की एक और गाँठ बाँध कर उसे और प्रबल कर देता है |
जब बच्चे इस त्यौहार को मानते हैं तो वे बहिन के रक्षा का उत्तरदायित्व नहीं लेते हैं और न ले ही सकते हैं | इस त्यौहार में राखी बांधते  हुए स्नेह का ही विनिमय होता है | मेरे विचार से इस त्यौहार को स्नेह बंधन कहना अधिक उचित होगा |

Article by Diwakar Sharma in Hindi on knol
Under Creative Commons 3.0

Telugu Film Songs on Friends and Friendship

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Mahatma Gandhi on Business and Ethics

Itis wrong to think that business is incompatible with ethics. I know that is is perfrectly possible to carry on one's business profitably, and yet honestly and truthfully.
Harijan, 4.5.1935
I do not hold dishonest practices in business to be warranted or excusable. The principle of unconditional honesty is as binding in this an in any other field of life.
Harijan, 13.3.1937 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 938

Durga Devi - Lalita Devi - Aarati, Bhajan, Songs, and Stotras

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Annavaram -Temple Town - Tourist Place - India


Lord Satyanarayana Swamy, the God in whose name the Satyanarayana Vrat is performed all over India and as well as the world by Hindus appeared here as the idol of worship.

Satyanarayana Vrata Vidhaanam


Latest News

Annavaram Temple will be reopened for Public from 14.3.2012

Panchayatana Yagna from 8.3.2012

Places of Tourist Interest

 Temple Complex

  • Sree Veera Venkata Satyanaryana Swamy Darshan in the main temple on the ratnagiri hill.
  • The temple  of Sri sita rama, as keshatra palakulu
  • The shrines of vana durga and kanaka durga near by. Godess Vanadurga held in great venaration and devi is said to be seen even to this day in the nights going about the holy precincts perpetually guarding the lord.
  • The temple of gramadevatha (Village deity ) is in the village at the foot of the hill.

Darshan Timings


Sarvadarshanam means 'Darshan for all'. Sarva darshanam is free and allowed between 6:00AM to 12:30PM and 1:00PM to 9:00PM.

Seegradarshanam means 'Darshan with less waiting time'. Piligrams who want to avail seegradarhan, have to purchase a ticket costing Rs. 25/- per head. One packet (100Gms) of bhogam prasadam will be provided for Seegradarshanam ticket. Timings for the seegradarshan is same as sarvadarshanam but allowed through a different queue.


How to Reach the Place

By Train 
 Most of the trains on Kolkata - Vijayawada route stop at Annavaram Railway station

By Bus
Buses ply to Annavaram from all important nearby towns. 


The nearest Airport is situated at Visakhapatnam. Annavaram is at a  3 hours distance from Visakhapatnam. 
APSRTC runs buses via Annavaram every half an hour

Hotels to Stay

Devasthanam  Facilities

Choultry's Name Rent per Day
Sri Seetha Rama Satram Rs 150.00
Sri Centinary Satram Rs 300.00
Sri Vana Durga Satram Rs 150.00
T.T.D Satram Rs 075.00
Satya Niketan (Annavaram Town) Rs 150.00

Guest House Name Rent per Day
Sri Satyadeva Guest House Rs 250.00
Donar Cottage Rs 150.00
Eswar Lake View Guest House Rs 3000.00  
Vinayaka Guest House(Full Suit) Protocol
Main Guest House For VIPs
Paying Guest House Rs 150.00
6 VIP Rooms(A/C) Rs 700.00
T.T.D VIP Rooms Rs 150.00
Prakash Sadan VIP Cottages
Ordinary Room Rs 450.00
Corner Room Rs 500.00
Special Room Rs 550.00
A.C. Room Rs 700.00
Double Room Rs 1500.00  

For any information related to Annavaram devasthanam, please contact:

The Executive Officer,
S.S.N.S Devasthanam,
Annavaram - 533406.
East Godavari Dist.,
Andhra Pradesh.

Phone : 08868-238121,238125,238163
Fax     : 08868-238124
Email  :


Some more phone numbers

50. Assistant Executive Officer
Temples (9491249964)
51. Assistant Executive Officer
Vrathams (9491249965)
52. Assistant Executive Officer
Accommodations (9491249963)
53. Assistant Executive Officer
Annadanam (9491249962)
54. Executive Engineer (9491249959)
For Cottage Donation Scheme

Full list of telephone numbers

Air, Bus, Train, Tours and Travels - Details

For Air and Train Timings at Visakhapatnam Visit
APSRTC Express Bus Time Table at Annavaram Bus Station
For Bus timinings from any town/city in Andhra Pradesh to other towns visit and click on Fare & Timings
For Taxi Services in Visakhapatnam


Prasadam packets are available at the Main entrance of the temple.

Shops around the temple



For a list of tourist places in India visit 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1138

Mahatma Gandhi on Alcohol

Alcohol ruins one physically, morally, intellectually and economically,
Alcohol makes a man forget himself; and while its effects last, he becomes utterly incapable of doing anything useful. Those who take to drinking, ruin themselves and ruin their people. They lose all sense of decency and propriety.
Key to Health, P.32
Gandhi wanted his followers to be tee-totallers.
Originally posted in Knol 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 931