Saturday, March 10, 2012

Green Cities and Towns of India - Green Certification of Indian Cities and Towns


Green Movement - Introduction


Green movement is related to the preservation of environment, popularly termed as sustainable development and environment.

It is difficult to find a good explanation of green movement even using the power of Google search engine ( http://www.greenlivingguide.org/what-does-the-green-movement-mean-to-you.html  )

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The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO)

The Ministry of Urban  Development, Government  of India, is  nodal  Ministry in  charge of various aspects of Urban Development including Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in the Country. The Ministry formulates the policies and strategies pertaining to various aspects of Urban Development including Water Supply, Sanitation and Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Country  and also provides technical and financial assistance to the States.

The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) is Technical Wing of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, and deals with the matters related to Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Including Solid Waste Management in the Country.

The CPHEEO was constituted under the erstwhile Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) in 1953 as per the recommendations of the Environmental Hygiene Committee to deal with Water Supply and Sanitation in the Country.  In 1973-74, the CPHEEO was affiliated to the Ministry of Urban Development (erstwhile Ministry of Works & Housing).Since then, it is functioning as the technical wing of the Ministry.  

 As per the Constitution of India, “Water, that is to say, water supplies" falls within the legislative jurisdiction of the State Governments vide item 17 of the List II-State List under Seventh Schedule referred to in the Article 246(3) of the Constitution and States are vested with the constitutional right to plan, implement, operate and maintain water supply projects. 

Though water supply and sanitation is a State subject, the policies, strategies and guidelines are being provided by CPHEEO to the States & UTs Governments including Municipal Corporations / Committees. The CPHEEO plays a vital role in processing the schemes posed for external funding agencies including World Bank / JBIC/ ADB/ and Bilateral and Multilateral funding agencies and institutional financing such as LIC.  It acts as an Advisory body at Central level to advise the concerned State agencies and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in implementation, operation & maintenance of urban water supply, sanitation and Solid Waste Management projects and helps to adopt latest technologies in these sub sectors.

Besides, the CPHEEO also implements centrally sponsored Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme (AUWSP) for small towns (scrutinizing / approving the schemes received from State Departments from techno-economic angle), Solid Waste Management in 10 airfield towns, sponsors research studies, organizes training courses for the in-service engineers working in the water supply and sanitation sector.

PHE training was launched in 1956 as a Plan Programme to provide training to in-service Public Health Engineers so as to keep them abreast with the latest know-how in the field of Public Health / Environmental Engineering. At present, it sponsors Post Graduate Courses in Public Health Engineering / Environmental Engineering through 12 recognized academic institutions and over 60 Short Term & Refresher Courses through 21 academic institutions and training institutes under field departmensts.

In collaboration with UNDP, CPHEEO  has brought out computer software for design of water supply distribution networks, sewerage networks, economical size of pumping main and distributed them to all the States & ULBs for extensive use. 

CPHEEO  has prepared and published the following Manuals, which are technical guide books for the help of field engineers:

    *    Manual on Water Supply & Treatment, Third Edition, Revised-updated, May 1999.
    *    Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment, Second Edition, 1993.
    *   Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2000.
    *   Manual on Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply systems, 2005.

Source: http://cpheeo.nic.in/

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National Urban Sanitation Policy - India

(October 2008)

Government has identified 100% sanitation as a goal during the 11th Five Year Plan. The ultimate objective is that all urban dwellers will have access to and be able to use safe and hygienic sanitation facilities and arrangements so that no one needs to  defecate in the open.

               The vision of the policy is that all Indian cities and towns become totally sanitised, healthy and liveable and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women. The focus of the Policy is on Awareness Generation and Behavioural Change by generating awareness about sanitation and its linkages with public and environmental health amongst communities and institutions and also promoting mechanisms to bring about and sustain behavioural changes aimed at adoption of healthy sanitation practices;

In order to achieve this goal, the following activities shall be undertaken:

    * Promoting access to households with safe sanitation facilities (including    proper disposal arrangements);
Promoting community-planned and managed toilets wherever necessary, for groups of households who have constraints of space, tenure or economic constraints in gaining access to individual facilities;

    * Adequate availability and 100 % upkeep and management of Public Sanitation facilities in all Urban Areas, to rid them of open defecation and environmental hazards;

Integrated City Wide Sanitation

Re-orienting Institutions and mainstreaming Sanitation by

    * Mainstreaming thinking, planning and implementing measures related to sanitation in all sectors and departmental domains as a cross-cutting issue, especially in all urban management endeavours;
    * Strengthening national, state, city and local institutions (public, private and community) to accord priority to sanitation provision, including planning, implementation and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) management;
    * Extending access to proper sanitation facilities for poor communities and other un-served settlements;

Sanitary and Safe Disposal

100 % of human excreta and liquid wastes from all sanitation facilities including toilets must be disposed-off safely. In order to achieve this goal, the following activities shall be undertaken:

    * Promoting proper functioning of network-based sewerage systems and ensuring connections of households to them,  wherever possible;

    * Promoting recycle and reuse of treated waste water for non-potable applications, wherever possible, will be encouraged.

    * Promoting proper disposal and treatment of sludge from on-site installations (septic tanks, pit latrines, etc.);

    * Ensuring that all the human wastes are collected safely confined and disposed-off after treatment so as not to cause any hazard to public health or the environment;



Proper Operation and Maintenance of all Sanitary Installations:

    * Promoting proper usage, regular upkeep and maintenance of household, community and public sanitation facilities;

    * Strengthening Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to provide or cause to provide, sustainable sanitation services delivery

For achievement of the above goals, the government will support the following:

    *  States will be encouraged to prepare State Level Sanitation Strategies within a period of 2 years. Cities will be urged to prepare model City Sanitation Plans within a period of 2 years.  Each state shall formulate its own State Urban Sanitation Strategy taking into account its local urban context. Cities will operationalize the state strategy by preparing and implementing City Sanitation Plans. The states will also be encouraged to formulate State Reward Schemes. A state level apex body will monitor the implementation of the state strategy, and a nodal agency will be appointed for planning and implementation.  Each state and its cities would need to devise effective institutional arrangements at the city level.  However, the ULB’s (or their equivalent structures) must be at the centre of all urban sanitation activities.
    * Providing assistance for the preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) as per city sanitation plan as and when requests for funding are received;
    * Promote public-private partnership in respect of key projects/activities identified in the city sanitation plan;
    * Provide technical assistance and support for awareness generation and capacity building to states and cities within this financial year;
    * Periodic rating of all Class 1 cities (423) in respect of Sanitation and recognition of best performers by instituting a National Award within this financial year; The award scheme will take into account output related parameters such as complete elimination of open defecation, elimination of open scavenging and personal protection to sanitary workers, safe collection and disposal of total human excreta, recycling and reuse of treated wastewater for non-potable applications, efficient and safe management of storm water and solid waste management, process related parameters such as monitoring and evaluation, observance of proper O&M practices, clear assignment of institutional responsibilities, sanctions for deviance on the part of polluters and outcome related parameters such as improved quality of drinking water, reduction in water borne diseases etc. On the basis of the rating scheme, cities will be classified as Red, Black, Blue and Green which would denote and increasing level of achievement of good environmental and health outcomes.

               A National Advisory Group on Urban Sanitation (NAGUS) will be convened by the Ministry of Urban Development.  It will be broad based and will include representatives of the Ministries of Health, Social Justice and Empowerment, Housing and Urban Poverty alleviation, Water resources, external experts and representatives of State Governments National Advisory Group on Urban Sanitation will assist the Ministry of Urban Development in implementing the National Policy.Ministry of Urban development will set apart resources to the extent of Rs 50 crore over a five year period for activities such as National awareness generation campaign, Rating and National award scheme, Capacity building and training ,State level strategies and sample City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) and the National Advisory group on Urban sanitation

               The year 2008 has been declared the International year of Sanitation by the United Nations. The focus will be on raising awareness of the importance of sanitation and its impact on achieving the millennium development goals from three perspectives i.e hygiene, household sanitation and waste water, encouraging state governments and districts to promote and implement policies and actions for meeting the sanitation target and mobilising communities towards changing sanitation and hygiene practices through sanitation and health education campaigns.


               30.66 million urban households which form 35.49% of the urban households suffer inadequate access to sanitation facilities. 7.87% households defecate in the open, 5.48% use community latrines and 19.49% use shared latrines. More than 37% of the human excreta generated is unsafely disposed. The percentage of notified and non-notified slums without latrines is 17% and 51% respectively.  The National Urban Sanitation Policy approved by the Cabinet has been conceived taking these factors into consideration.

Source: Press Release Ministry of Urban Development ( http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=43437  )


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First City Rating Exercise in India


The ranking was done on the basis of sanitation. Intention to implement the rating system was declared in the national sanitation policy.  The ranking procedure was described in some detail in  http://www.wsp.org/UserFiles/file/WSP_rating_cities.pdf  .


The ranking exercise results in marks for a maximum of 100. Cities getting 90 to 100 marks are given the green rating. Cities between 65 and 90 are given the blue rating. Cities between 33.5 and 65 are rated black and towns with score less than 33.5 are rated red.

The ratings were released by Union Urban Development Jaipal Reddy on Monday,  10th May 2010. The Minister said the purpose of this exercise is also to recognise better performers as well as to encourage other cities to perform better. The idea is to galvanise action in states and cities towards better sanitation. Minister also announced that Rs. 25 cr. will be spent on improving the sanitation.

Chandigarh got the highest marks of 73.480 and got the blue rating.
Greater Mumbai got 45 marks
Thane got 41 marks.

Important Cities and Marks

Ahmedabad (50)  Bengaluru (54)   Bhopal           Chennai (54)    Delhi (61)    Hyderabad (41)   
Jaipur (34)           Kolkata (49)        Lucknow (49)  Patna (38)       Pune (43)    Surat (69)



The full Ratings List of all cities : http://pib.nic.in/archieve/others/2010/may/d2010051103.pdf 
Rating Parameters: www.pib.nic.in.
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Green Cities of USA


1. Burlington, Vermont
2. Ithaca, New York
3. Corvallis, Oregon
4. Springfield, Massachusetts
5. Wenatchee, Washington

For the bigger list of 25 cities
http://www.greenlivingguide.org/which-u-s-cities-are-most-green.html



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Reactions of City Administrations


Chandigarh


Chandigarh administration is preparing a green code for the city to improve environment in the city stil more
http://www.thinkindiaresearch.org/think-india-research-foundation/2010/05/green-code-for-the-cleanest-city-soon-.html   )



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City Sanitation Plans


Under national plan, cities are being encouraged to come up with sanitation plans.
See a tender notice by Agra Municipal Corporation for a sanitation plan (  http://tenders.indiamart.com/details/521382292/  )
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Green Building Movement in Indian Cities

A monograph on number of Green Buildings in India - 2007

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Other News Related to Green City Activities


CII developing Green rating system for cities, October  2009
http://www.constructionweekonline.in/article-5558-cii_developing_green_rating_system_for_cities/

New Culture of Urban Sanitation in Mumbai (1988)
http://www.archidev.org/article.php3?id_article=391
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Related Knols


Green Cities Movement - Ecocities Movement Around the World
Sustainable and green city development
Green Sustainable Communities - The Future
Getting Started in Green Building
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Relaed Websites

Cities Alliance - Global Body
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/about-cities-alliance

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