Saturday, February 28, 2015

Comments by K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in Social Media regarding India Issues

In the Nasscom Post of Shri Narendra Modi
1 March 2015

Dear Sir, Nasscom has an important role to play in $20 Trillion GDP India. I think IT industry has to become One trillion dollar GDP Industry in $20 Trillion GDP India. The industry leaders have to aspire for that target. You need to show them the direction. My analysis of that feasible dream

In the Budget Post of Shri Narendra Modi
28 Feb 2015

Dear Sir, It is very nice that many people have appreciated the budget. My personal suggestion is that two issues are to be highlighted during the budget speech. One that the programmes suggested by various ministries are evaluated by finance ministry staff, now NITI staff and cabinet and the best of them are incorporated into the budget. The ministries must be thanked for coming out with very good schemes. Second the people from all walks of life, especially the prominent associations who have given various budget memorandums must be told that all their proposals were duly considered by the concerned ministries and were duly incorporated into the budget so that budget will be useful to them. They must be thanked for the involvement in development of the budget. These two statements improve the commitment of people to the budget and also increase the authenticity of budget as a democratic instrument of governance according to me. I thank you sir for providing a direct access to you for communicating our views, even though many of them may not be of real value to you. But at least we get a chance to express our thoughts at a point in time.

Friday, February 27, 2015

28 February - National Science Day

28 February 1928 - C.V. Raman discovered Raman Effect.

28 February 1930 - C.V. Raman became Nobel Luareate in Physics.

28 February is Indian's National Science Day.

What India has given to the World of Science, Engineering and Technology?

Discoveries, Inventions, Development, Designs, Commercial Products, and Product Improvements

We need to remember many scientists along with Bharata Ratna on the occasion of National Science Day.

INSA Medals for Scientists of India

The Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Medal

1979 Salim Ali
1982 GN Ramachandran
1985 MGK Menon
1988 C Gopalan
1991 AP Mitra
1993 G Swarup
1995 AS Paintal
1997 PN Tandon
1999 SK Joshi
2001 S Varadarajan
2003 G Mehta
2005 MS Bamji
2007 GS Khush
2010 S Dattagupta
2013 R Chidambaram

The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Medal

1959 Atma Ram
1962 No Award
1964 TR Seshadri
1966 DS Kothari
1968 P Ray
1970 S Bhagavantam
1972 No Award
1974 AN Khosla
1976 No Award
1979 Braham Prakash
1982 TR Anantharaman
1985 R Narasimha
1988 Dinesh Mohan
1991 BK Bachhawat
1993 MA Viswamitra
1995 CS Seshadri
1997 R Kumar
1999 G Padmanaban
2001 RA Mashelkar
2003 NH Wadia
2005 P Ramachandra Rao
2007 NK Ganguly
2010 Anupam Varma
2013 Indira Nath

The Meghnad Saha Medal

1958 SN Bose
1961 HN Bhabha
1963 DN Wadia
1965 DM Bose
1967 No Award
1969 CR Rao
1971 TR Seshadri
1973 No Award
1975 TR Govindachari
1978 DS Kothari
1981 MS Swaminathan
1984 R Ramanna
1987 Sukh Dev
1990 CNR Rao
1992 S Chandrasekhar
1994 MM Sharma
1996 SV Kessar
1998 AK Sharma
2000 N Kumar
2002 R Chidambaram
2004 P Rama Rao
2006 Yash Pal
2009 VS Ramamurthy
2012 T Ramasami
2015 Bikash C Sinha

The Aryabhata Medal

1977 KR Ramanathan
1980 BP Pal
1983 S Dhawan
1986 S Ramaseshan
1989 PN Srivastava
1992 Obaid Siddiqi
1994 V Ramalingaswami
1996 MVS Valiathan
1998 RP Bambah
2000 K Kasturirangan
2002 VL Chopra
2004 KL Chopra
2006 MS Raghunathan
2009 HY Mohanram
2012 KK Talwar
2015 Alok Bhattacharya

Concepts Contributed by Indian Scientists, Engineers, Technologists (to be compiled)

Narayana Rao - Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.
C.N.R. Rao - Nano Technology Research

1928 - Bharata Ratna C.V. Raman
1918 - Srinivasa Ramanujan
Jagadish Chandra Bose

Ancient India had 64 educational branches and 64 practical skill branches. Indians certainly observed nature and discovered the way nature works and used it for the benefit of mankind.
Panini - Grammar
Ashwini Devata - Ayurveda
Kanada - Theory of Kana (small units of material)
Ancient Time Vedas

Young Scientist Awardees for the Year 2014 - 2015

Name of Sections                                                    Name of Awardees
Agriculture and Forestry Sciences                            Dibyendu Chatterjee,  ICAR Research Complex, Nagaland.
Animal, Veterinary& Fishery Sciences Bodhisattwa Banerjee, Dept. of Zoology, NEHU, Shillong
Anthropological and Behavioural Sciences (including Archaeology and Psychology & Educational Sciences and Military Sciences) Monika Saini, Department of Anthropology, Delhi University, Delhi
Chemical Sciences Prabhat K. Singh, Radiation & Photochemistry Division, BARC, Mumbai
Earth System Sciences Ishya Devi, Department of Geology, University of Jammu, J & K
Engineering Sciences Debarghya Chakraborty, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur.
Environmental Sciences Debanjana Sengupta, P.G. Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata.
Information & Communication Science & Technology (Including Computer Sciences) Boopathy D, Bharathiar University, Tamilnadu
Materials Science Aditya Chauhan, IIT Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
Mathematical Sciences (Including Statistics) Namita, Department of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi
Medical Sciences (Including Physiology) Medha Kapoor, DRDO, New Delhi.
New Biology (Including Biochemistry,Biophysics & Molecular Biology and Biotechnology) C. Sathishkumar, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai.
Physical Sciences Swarniv Chandra, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata
Plant Sciences Rajkumari jashmi Devi, Department of Botany, NEHU, Shillong.

Young Scientist Awardees for the year 2013-14
Young Scientist Awardees for the year 2012-13
Young Scientist Awardees for the year 2011-12
Young Scientist Awardees for the year 2010-11
Young Scientist Awardees for the year 2009-10

Railway Budget 2015 - 16

Interesting Information

IMF Budgeting Guidelines

Transforming Indian Railways over next Five Years 

Government of India
Ministry of Railways

Railway Minister Outlines Four Goals for Transforming Indian Railways over next Five Years

            The Minister of Railways Shri Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu has outlined four goals for Indian Railways to transform it over the next five years. These goals are:

a) To deliver a sustained and measurable improvement in customer experience, the Indian Railways is launching initiatives that will systematically address customer concerns about cleanliness, comfort, accessibility, service quality and speed of trains.

b) To make Rail a safer means of travel.

c) To expand Bhartiya Rail’s capacity substantially and to modernise infrastructure. Given the importance of rail travel for the citizens, Indian Railways will increase daily passenger carrying capacity from 21million to 30 million. It will also increase track length by 20% from 1,14,000 km to 1,38,000 km, and will grow its annual freight carrying capacity from 1 billion to 1.5 billion tonnes. And

d) To make Bhartiya Rail financially self-sustainable, the Indian Railways will generate large surpluses from its operations not only to service the debt needed to fund capacity expansion, but also to invest on an on-going basis to replace its depreciating assets. This will require material improvement in operating efficiency, tighter control over costs, greater discipline over project selection and execution, and a significant boost to Railways’ revenue generating capacity.

Presenting the Railway Budget 2015-16 in Parliament today the Minister said, these goals will also ensure that Railways is an integral part of all the flagship programmes that our Prime Minister has launched for improving the quality of life of the downtrodden, from ‘Swachh Bharat’ to Make in India, and from ‘Digital India’ to ‘Skill India’.

Funding Requirement Announced - Feasible to Finance It.

The investment target is mentioned as Rs. 8,50,000 crores in the next five years. In dollar terms it is $137 billion dollars which is equal to 27.4 billion dollars per year.

While many yesterday said, that this amount of money cannot be raised, I do not see any difficulty in raising this amount of finance. It is very much feasible and government can go ahead and execute its plan for Railways.

You may as a reader ask how is it possible.

Remember we are a 2 trillion dollar economy. We have to the aspiration to become 20 trillion dollar economy.

Railways presently contributes 1% to our GDP. Plan is to increase it to 3%. Does the arithmetic fit? It not write a comment on your objection.

Size of Plan Budget of Railways up by 52%

Railways to Set up Financial Cell to Seek Advice from Experts

The Union Railway Minister Shri Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu has announced that the size of the Plan Budget has gone up by 52% from Rs. 65,798 crore in 2014- 15 to Rs. 1,00,011 crore in 2015-16. Support from the Central Government constitutes 41.6% of the total Plan Budget and Internal generation 17.8 %. Introducing the Railway Budget for 2015-16 in Parliament today he said that in view of the fact that it would be a challenging task to initiate the mobilization of extra-budgetary resources, it is proposed to set up a Financing Cell in the Railway Board, which would seek the benefit of advice from experts in this field.

The Railways Minister informed the members that for financing remunerative projects through market borrowings, it is intended to tap low cost long term funds from insurance and pension funds, multi-lateral and bilateral agencies which can be serviced through incremental revenues. Railways will create new vehicles to crowd in investment from long-term institutional investors and other partners. These may include setting up an infrastructure fund, a holding company and a Joint Venture with an existing NBFC of a PSU with IRFC, for raising long term debt from domestic as well as overseas sources, including multilateral and bilateral financial institutions that have expressed keen interest in working closely with Railways in this endeavor. Railways will monetize its assets rather than sell them, he added.

Financial Performance of Railways during 2014-15

Railway Minister Shri Suresh Prabhkar Prabhu has said that the passenger earnings which were budgeted to increase by 22.2% have been scaled down to 17.7% keeping in view the persistent negative growth trend, particularly in non suburban non-PRS segment of travel. Presenting the Railway Budget 2015-16 in Parliament today, he said there is a net reduction in Gross Traffic Receipts by Rs 917 crore in RE compared to the BE of Rs 1,60,165 crore.

The Railway Minister said Ordinary Working Expenses (OWE) in BE were provided for at an increase of 15.5% over 2013-14 which has been scaled down to 11.7% in the RE. Taking into account the likely savings accruing from drop in prices of HSD (High Speed Diesel) for traction partly offset by higher requirements under certain heads for maintenance, safety and cleanliness activities, the budgeted OWE of Rs 1,12,649 crore have been decreased in the RE 2014-15 to Rs. 1,08,970 crore i.e. by Rs 3,679 crore.

He said BE provided for an appropriation of Rs 28,865 crore to Pension Fund. However, based on trend, the pension outgo has been assessed to be higher than the provision made in BE. Accordingly, appropriation to the Pension Fund has been increased to Rs. 29,540 crore in RE. Internal resource generation also improved and accordingly the appropriation to DRF has been scaled up to Rs 7,975 crore in RE from the BE 2014-15 provision of Rs 7,050 crore.

Shri Prabhu said after taking into account the above, "Excess" of receipts over expenditure stands at Rs 7,278 crore in RE 2014-15. With the above estimates, the targeted Operating Ratio is 91.8% against 92.5% in BE, which is an improvement of 0.7% percentage point over BE and 1.8% over 2013-14. Plan size for 2014-15 has increased from Rs 65,445 crore in the B.E to Rs 65,798 crore in the Revised Estimates i.e. by Rs 353 crore with higher provisions under internal resource component and market borrowings for rolling stock requirement.

Speed of Nine Railway Corridors to be Increased

The speed of nine railway corridors will be increased from the existing 110 and 130 kmph to 160 and 200 kmph respectively so that inter-metro journeys like Delhi-Kolkata and Delhi-Mumbai can be completed overnight. Announcing this while presenting the Railway Budget 2015-16 in Parliament today the Railway Minister Shri Suresh Prabhkar Prabhu said this will involve the upgradation of track including turnouts and rolling stock to higher standards as well as the adoption of improved methods of track recording, monitoring and maintenance.

He said the average speed of freight trains, both in empty and loaded conditions, will also be enhanced. A policy of attaining speeds of 100 kmph for empty freight trains and 75 kmph for loaded trains is being put in place. The Minister said that with the objective of maximizing loading in every train, the loading density on all major freight bearing routes of Indian Railways will be upgraded to 22.82 tonne axle loads.

India - Economic Survey 2014 - 15 - Summary and Analysis

All budget documents

The broad themes of the Survey are “creating opportunity and reducing vulnerability.” Growth is the
prerequisite for achieving many economic and indeed other objectives. Maximizing the benefits of growth will, of course, require complementary public actions.

India could finally be launched on a double-digit medium-term growth trajectory.

Perspiration and inspiration, investment and efficiency, respectively, determine long-run growth.

India needs to follow what might be called “a persistent, encompassing, and creative incrementalism”
but with bold steps in a few areas that signal a decisive departure from the past and that are aimed
at addressing key problems such as ramping up investment, rationalizing subsidies, creating a
competitive, predictable, and clean tax policy environment, and accelerating disinvestment.

Macro-economic circumstances are now favorable. Inflation has declined by over 6 percentage
points since late 2013, and the current account deficit has shrivelled from a peak of 6.7 percent
of GDP (in Q3, 2012-13) to an estimated 1.0 percent in the coming fiscal year. Foreign portfolio
flows are  US$ 38.4 billion. The downward pressure on long-term interest rates is  reflected in the yield on 10-year government securities. There is a surge in equity prices (31 percent since April
in rupee terms, and even more in US dollars, ranking it the highest amongst emerging markets).

Press Release on Economic Survey

PIB - Ministry of Finance

Indian Economy is looking-up with brighter prospects amongst the world’s major economies today.  The Economic Survey 2014-15 presented by the Finance Minister Shri Arun Jaitley to the Parliament today indicates that a clear political mandate for reform and a benign external environment now is expected to propel India on to a double digit trajectory.  It states that Indian economy appears to have now gone past the economic slowdown, persistent inflation, elevated fiscal deficit, slackening domestic demand, external account imbalances and oscillating value of the rupee.

The Economic Survey taking into consideration the change of base year by the Central Statistics Office of the National Accounts series from 2004-05 to 2011-12, states that growth at market prices for 2015-16 is expected to be 8.1-to 8.5 per cent.

The growth rate in GDP at constant (2011-12) market prices in 2012-13 was 5.1 per cent, which increased to 6.9 percent in 2013-14 and it is expected to further increase to 7.4 per cent in 2014-15 (According to advanced estimates). The change in methodology by the Central Statistics Office has also introduced the concept of Gross Value Added (GVA) at the aggregate and various sectoral levels.

The Economic Survey says that expectation for such a growth rate is also due to a number of reforms that have already been undertaken and more that are being planned for.  The Survey enlist various reform measures like de-regulation of diesel price, taxing energy products, replacing cooking gas subsidy by direct transfer on national scale, passing an Ordinance to reform the coal sector via auctions, increasing the FDI caps in defence, etc.

The Survey report also commended the far reaching changes brought about on the issue of sharing of revenues between the Centre and States as recommended by the 14th Finance Commission.

The Survey says that decline in inflation by over 6 percentage points since late 2013 and also reduction of current account deficit from a peak of 6.7 per cent of GDP in the third quarter of 2012-13 to about one (1) per cent in the coming fiscal year has made India an attractive investment destination well above most other countries.

The expected high growth rate in the coming year in the favourable economic environment has created a historic movement of opportunity to propel India into a double-digit growth trajectory to attain the fundamental objective of  “wiping every tear from every eye” of the vulnerable and  poor people of the country, the survey says.  It also gives an opportunity to the increasingly young, middle-class and aspirational India to realize its full potential. As the new Government is to present its first full year budget, the Economic Survey states that  it appears that India has reached a sweet spot and that there is a scope for Big Bang reforms now.

 The growth estimates of over 8 per cent for the current year is on expectations that the monsoon will be favourable,  as it was forecast to be normal, compared to last year. However the growth rate in Gross Value Added (GVA) at basic prices in agriculture is projected to decline from 3.7 per cent in 2013-14, an exceptionally good previous year from the point of view of rainfall, to 1.1 per cent in 2014-15, the current year with not-so-favourable monsoon.  

The Economic Survey has also drawn our attention to certain other stagnating or declining elements of the economy in the recent past.

It says that the growth in 2014-15 is largely driven by domestic demand. There is hardly any external support to growth in 2014-15, as the growth in exports is projected to be only 0.9 per cent and the growth rate of imports, around (-) 0.5 per cent. The deceleration in imports owe substantially to the sharp decline in international oil prices in the current year that compressed the oil import bill.

It also says that there has been a decline in the rate of gross domestic saving, from 33.9 per cent of the GDP in 2011-12 to 31.8 per cent in 2012-13 and further to 30.6 per cent in 2013-14, caused majorly by the sharp decline in the rate of household physical savings.

Further it states that investment rate over the past years, as measured by Gross capital formation (GCF) as a percentage of GDP declined from 38.2 per cent in 2011-12 to 36.6 per cent in 2012-13 and further to 32.3 per cent in 2013-14.

On investments the Survey had significantly commented that while private investment must remain the primary engine of long-run growth, the public investment, especially in the railways, will have to play an important role at least in the interim, to revive growth and to deepen physical connectivity.

This Economic Survey prescribes, what its calls, a golden rule of fiscal policy saying that governments are expected to borrow over the cycle only to finance investment and not to fund current expenditures. It urged the government to aim at bringing down the centre’s fiscal deficit down to 3 per cent of GDP.

The Economic Survey made some interesting comments saying that price subsidies do not appear to have had a transformative effect on the living standards of the poor, though they have helped poor households to weather inflation and price volatility.   It says that a close look at price subsidies, which are estimated to be about 3,78,000 crore rupees, about 4.24 per cent of GDP, reveal that they may not be the government’s best weapon for fighting poverty.  Dwelling upon various subsidies to the poor, the Survey even stated that price subsidies are often regressive. It said, an analysis of current subsidy scheme indicates that rich households benefit more from the subsidy than a poor household. Among various examples that it had dwelt upon the Survey said that subsidy on electricity can only benefit the relatively rich. The Survey, however, concluded that eliminating or phasing down subsidies is neither feasible nor desirable.     It said that by adopting what it called the JAM Number Trinity-Jan Dhan Yojana, Aadhaar and Mobile numbers would allow the State to deliver the subsidies to poor in a targeted and less distorted manner.

The Economic Survey had expressed a serious concern that several projects have been stalled and such a tendency is increased over the past years.  In the same breath the Survey report expressed happiness that such stalling of projects seems to have plateaued.  It suggested revitalizing public private partnership model of investment.

Dwelling upon the issue of manufacturing versus services for the growth of the economy the Survey says, both are equally important in the Indian context.  Similarly, “Skilling India” is no less important and deserves an equal attention as the other important goal of “Make in India “.

In a Chapter on a Common National Market for Agricultural Commodities the Survey without making any conclusions suggested that there may be a Constitutional provision used to regulate trading in specified agricultural commodities to create a National Common Market.

In an exclusive Chapter relating to the Fourteenth Finance Commission(FFC) the Economic Survey quoted both Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the country and the current Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and said that adoption of the recommendations of the FFC and the creation of Niti Ayog earlier would further take forward the Government’s vision of cooperative and competitive federalism.

Thursday, February 26, 2015

The Economic Times India Entrepreneurship Summit 2015 - News and Analysis

A point was made that 16 lakh students are graduating every year Only 10 percent are showing interest in entrepreneurship.  Some laments this state of affairs. Is it a cause for worry?

According to me it is not. What is important is the environment provided by the society to the 1.6 lakh students who want to be entrepreneurs. Instead of celebrating the fact that 1.6 lakh students are willing to become entrepreneurs and making efforts to make them successful, we spend money to promote more entrepreneurship and then make 80% of them failures.

Promoters of entrepreneurship have to change their thinking.

Report in Economic Times dated 27 Feb 2015

NMTI - National Movement for Transforming India into a Developed Country

Transformation of India - Be a Part of It - Contribute to It.

India to be $20 Trillion GDP Economy by 2035 - $10 Trillion GDP Economy by 2030
$7 Trillion GDP Economy by 2025 - $5 Trillion GDP Economy by 2020

Prime Minister Modi has set up NITI - National Institution for Transforming India.

Now there is need for people movement - NMTI - National Movement for Transforming India.

We are read and remember our independence movement. We had to fight and get our independence back from foreign who objective was to transfer income and wealth from us to them. We got independence but as a very poor country. Then we got the tag developing country. But now we have a chance to become not only developed country, but become in the interim the third largest economy of the world. $20 trillion GDP dream was announced by Narendra Modi. It was indicated by Manmohan Singh also. So an opportunity is there in the horizon. Our great leaders have sensed the opportunity. But can the masses take the cue and create a mass movement - A National Movement for Transforming India into a Developed Country.

We need to bring the opportunity into the awareness of crores of people.

Car Production in India - Vision 2035

The production of cars in India was 30,72,651 in 2013-14.

My estimate for production of cars in 2034-35 is 3 crores - 3,00,00,000   that is 30 million,   30,000,000

I need to provide support for it. But the basic underlying theme is India will reach a GDP of $20 trillion by 2035. Increasing automobile production 10 times will be the basis for increasing the
GDP by 10 times.

Bulk of these cars will electric cars or still modern technology cars.

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

Guntur to Visakhapatnam - Most Promising Urban Belt of India

Transformation of India - Be a Part of It.

India to be $20 Trillion GDP Economy by 2035 - $10 Trillion GDP Economy by 2030
$7 Trillion GDP Economy by 2025 - $5 Trillion GDP Economy by 2020

In the context of India becoming a major economy of the world, in state of Andhra Pradesh Guntur Visakhapatnam has the potential to be the most productive urban belt of India.

Both Government and Industrialists have to come together and develop this big well endowed region and benefit the economy of Andhra Pradesh and India. With the Capital City coming between Guntur and Vijayawada, Guntur also becomes part of this long stretch.

Frequent railway transport can be scheduled between these stations to increase mobility and make each municipal city a special one in some respect. One city can be developed for engineering. One for entertainment, one for banking and one for insurance. One for chemical laboratories and one physics based laboratories. The government can disperse the economic development and provide a nucleus to every city or town on the way to progress further. There can be an IT city. There can be a Biotech city. There can be nanotech city.

Guntur - Vijayawada - Eluru - Tadepalli Gudem - Nidadavolu - Kovvuru - Rajahmundry - Dwarapudi - Samalkot - Pithapuram - Tuni - Anakapalli - Visakhapatnam are the important towns on this route. Presently it takes around six to seven hours travel between the two end points. But railways can plan for 4 hour journey so that people start at 8 pm and reach the place of their work by maximum 12 noon. The mobility will make dispersal of economic activity easy and economical. Each town can grow into a big city specialising in a sector of economic activity and providing both top class education and products and services in that sector.

Speed of Nine Railway Corridors to be Increased

The speed of nine railway corridors will be increased from the existing 110 and 130 kmph to 160 and 200 kmph respectively so that inter-metro journeys like Delhi-Kolkata and Delhi-Mumbai can be completed overnight. This will involve the upgradation of track including turnouts and rolling stock to higher standards as well as the adoption of improved methods of track recording, monitoring and maintenance.

The average speed of freight trains, both in empty and loaded conditions, will also be enhanced. A policy of attaining speeds of 100 kmph for empty freight trains and 75 kmph for loaded trains is being put in place. The Minister said that with the objective of maximizing loading in every train, the loading density on all major freight bearing routes of Indian Railways will be upgraded to 22.82 tonne axle loads.

Will Guntur - Visakhapatnam a corridor whose speed will be increased?

25 Feb 2015
GMR to invest Rs. 1000 cr in toy manufacturing in Kakinada SEZ.

I came across a Japanese Pharma company in Vizag manufacturing medicines for Brain problems.

Readers please share top industrial and business units and educational units in each of the towns and cities of the Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari and Visakhapatnam Districts. In these districts while every municipal town has an opportunity, the towns along the railway line have the readymade opportunity. We have a chance to contribute to its development by outlining the oppourtunities through our blogs, Google+, Facebook, Twitter and Linkedin messages. They will help entrepreneurs and also political leaders to make better sense of the opportunity. Political leaders can include all municipal councillors and also various candidates who contested for the election even though they have not won. They still have very good influence in their area and they contribute to its development. Please join the information sharing process.

Monday, February 23, 2015

Railway Budget for Mumbai 2015 - 16

Mumbaikars are hoping that Suresh Prabhu will improve their railway services.

Railways is not announcing enough schemes and even in announced schemes it is not able to complete the projects.

Times article on 24 Feb 2015

Most Promises of 2014 budget yet to be kept.

65,000 Tonnes Aircraft Carrier Project - Progress

Indian government is taking steps to study the feasibility and order the construction of 65,000 tonne aircraft carrier in India. It will be a good push for Make in India campaign.

Presently, in India, 40,000 tonne aircraft carrier is under construction.

Sunday, February 22, 2015

Make in India - Defence Equipment - $20 Trillion Economy Opportunity

Defence Production Policy, 2011 to encourage indigenous manufacture of defence equipment. Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) has been amended to provide for the following :
1. Preference to ‘Buy (Indian)’ and ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’ over ‘Buy (Global)’.
2. Simplification of the procedure for ‘Buy and Make (Indian)’.
3. Clear and unambiguous definition of indigenous content.
4. Provision for Maintenance TOT to Indian Industry partners.

Defence products list for industrial licensing, has been articulated in June 2014, wherein large numbers of parts/components, castings/forgings etc. have been excluded from the purview of industrial licensing. The same is available at the DIPP’s website,

The defence security manual for the private sector defence manufacturing units have been finalized and put in public domain by the Department of Defence Production. The manual clarifies the security architecture required to be put in place by the industry while undertaking sensitive defence equipments.

The MAKE procedure, which aims to promote R&D in the industry with support from the government and the placement of orders (if R&D effort is successful), is also being revised to make it more attractive and unambiguous for the private sector.

February 2015
Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Speech in support of Make in India in Aero India 2015 Show

NDTV Upload

Updated  22 Feb 2015, 15 Feb 2015

Saturday, February 21, 2015

Coal India Limited - Vision 2020 - One Billion Tonne Production

CIL Gearing Up For 1 Billion Tonne Coal Production Mark

Coal India Limited (CIL), the Maharatna coal mining monolith had unveiled its roadmap, of strategies to be adopted, to attain the 1 Billion Tonne (BT) coal production mark by 2019-20. With the projected coal demand of the country hovering around 1,200 Million Tonnes (MTs) by 2019-20, at an envisaged growth rate of 7%, CIL is expected to chip in 1 BT, of which, 908 MTs is the expected contribution from the identified projects. This was stated by Shri S Bhattacharya, CMD , Coal India Ltd(CIL) while briefing the media here today. He further added that the process of identification of projects to share the balance quantity, to top up the 1 BT mark, is also underway. The two CIL subsidiaries Sambalpur based Mahanadi Coalfields Limited and the Bilaspur based South Eastern Coalfields Limited are expected to play a pivotal role in CIL’s quest of attaining the 1 BT production with 250 MTs and 240 MTs respectively , Shri Bhattacharya added. Earlier , Shri Anil Swarup , Coal Secretary said that coal ministry is committed to increase coal production in the country.

Shri Bhattacharya pointed out the key issues that the coal miner is basically relying on are timely completion of three critical railway lines and timely land acquisition and green clearances.

Elaborating further, Shri Bhattacharya said that important actions initiated are creation of Coal Project Monitoring Group (CPMG) portal for regular monitoring of project related issues with different ministries and State Authorities. To overcome the hurdle of coal evacuation, CIL had decided to purchase 2000 railway wagons from its own kitty for which a specific fund had been earmarked. The coordination with Railways for implementation has already been initiated. In a move to synergize its efforts SECL already has 2 Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) with State governments to develop rail network including last mile connectivity, involving Railways. More number of SPVS are on immediate anvil towards grounding railways infrastructure with Railways and concerned State Govt. participations, Shri Bhattacharya stated.

Shri Bhattacharya said that the strategies for future include Technology Upgradation in Opencast Mines with high capacity equipment , Operator independent Truck Dispatch System, Vehicle tracking system using GPS/GPRS, Coal Handling Plants (CHPs) and SILOS for Faster Loading and monitoring using Laser Scanners. As far as productivity improvement in Underground mines is concerned, Shri Bhattacharya said that the steps taken by CIL will include introduction of Continuous Miner Technology in large scale, Long-wall Technology at selected places, Man Riding system in major mines and Use of Tele monitoring Techniques.

CIL is also introducing a number of systems improvements that would help the company in realizing its challenging target. Use of ICT, remote sensing geophysical technologies and proper monitoring and evaluation methodologies will be the key features, Shri Bhattacharya added.

Tourism Business and Industry in India

Vision 2020

Hospitality Industry in India

According to World Travel & Tourism Council, the industry will grow exponentially to create 8 million additional jobs in India over the next 10 years. The contribution of the Hospitality industry to GDP is expected to rise from 8.6% (US$117.9bn) in 2010 to 9.0%(US$330.1bn) by 2020.

The Travel & Tourism industry today employs over 50 million people in India and is the largest employer after the government. Between now and 2020, the contribution of the travel and tourism economy to employment in India is expected to rise by almost 20% from 49 million to 58 million jobs. In 2020, one in every 9.6 jobs in India will be in the hospitality industry.

In 2011, India had 740 million domestic travellers and 6.3 million foreign travel arrivals. It has 170,000 hotel rooms including 60,000 branded hotel rooms.
Icra report on Hotels in India

January 2015

FTAs grow by 4% in January 2015 over January 2014

FEEs in rupee terms show an increase of 4% in January 2015 over corresponding period last year

 Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs):

FTAs during the Month of January 2015 was 7.90 lakh as compared to FTAs of 7.59 lakh during the month of January 2014 and 7.20 lakh in January 2013. There has been a growth of 4.0% in January 2015 over January 2014.

Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEEs) from Tourism in India in rupee terms and in US$ terms

FEEs during the month of January 2015 were `11,529 crore as compared to `11,082 crore in January 2014 and `10,785 crore in January 2013.

The growth rate in FEEs in rupee terms during January 2015 over January 2014 was 4.0% as compared to 2.8% in January 2014 over January 2013.

FEEs in US$ terms during the month of January 2015 were US$ 1.854 billion as compared to FEEs of US$ 1.786 billion during  the month of January 2014.

Friday, February 20, 2015

e-Biz Portal India

It is a Indian Government and State Government's Government to Business Portal.
Business firms will be able to interact with government using this portal and get many licenses through this route.

It is a big project getting implemented in phases.

19 February 2015
Government of India integrated 11 central government services to facilitate faster clearances for businesses.

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce & Industry today announced the launch of 11 Central Government Services on eBiz portal. These services are required for starting a business in the country - four services from Ministry of Corporate Affairs, two services of Central Board of Direct Taxes, two services of Reserve Bank of India and one service each from Directorate General of Foreign Trade, Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation and Petroleum & Explosives Safety Organisation.  A business-user today avails these services either from the portal of respective Ministry/Department or by physical submission of forms. With the integration of these services on eBiz portal, he/she can avail all these services 24*7 online end-to-end i.e., online submission of forms, attachments, payments, tracking of status and also obtain the license/permit from eBiz portal.

Through eBiz portal, a business user can fill the eForms online/offline, upload the attachments, make payment online and submit the forms for processing of the department. He will be provided with copy of challan, which he can save or print, acknowledgement of submission and tracking of status of the form besides receiving sms alerts on important notifications. The certificate/clearance can be downloaded from eBiz. The eBiz platform, thus, enables a transformational shift in the Governments’ service delivery approach from being department-centric to customer-centric as a single window portal.

eBiz – India’s Government-to-Business (G2B) portal  was conceptualized with support from National Institute of Smart Government (NISG) as the consulting partner and developed by M/s. Infosys Ltd., Bangalore in a Public Private Partnership (PPP) Model for a period of 10 years. The first three years of the term would be the pilot phase, while the remaining seven years will be the expansion phase. During the pilot phase, 50 (26 central + 24 state) services are being implemented across ten pilot states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. It is envisaged that during the next few years, more than 200 services related to investors and businesses will be rolled-out across the country.

One of the salient features of eBiz is its payment gateway solution. With integration of PSU banks, government fees are transferred on ‘T+1’ basis. For eBiz transactions, an electronic PAO system (ePAO) has been set up in DIPP which will make booking and reconciliation of all Central Government fees received through eBiz portal. The Comptroller General of Accounts has given approval to establish the electronic system of collection, apportionment and remittance of fees collected under the eBiz portal. It is for the first time in the country that collection of fees through credit and debit cards for different services have been permitted making it very convenient for business to deposit fees.

Speaking on the occasion the Minister of Finance, Corporate Affairs and Information & Broadcasting Shri Arun Jaitley, said, “We are firmly committed to wide-ranging initiatives aimed at fostering the business environment in the country in a holistic manner. Our approach includes leveraging technology to bring transparency, improve efficiency and promote convenience. eBiz is an important step in this direction. With the integration of 11 services, an important milestone in the electronic service delivery mechanism between the citizens’ and Governments Departments has been achieved”. The Minister of State (Independent Charge), Commerce & Industry Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman said “Now, irrespective of the level of computerization at the Department’s end, whether online or not, eBiz platform will provide end-to-end online submission and processing of forms including online payment. This marks the highest level of maturity in web-based eGovernance applications as it strives to achieve horizontal integration across various verticals of Central government, State governments and Para-statal agencies. The integrated payment gateway, which is also the first of its kind in the country, provides for debiting from and crediting to multiple sources in a completely automated manner. Such a gateway can serve as the universal gateway for all eGovernance applications. All that would be required is integration of the department or the particular service with the eBiz portal.” Also present in the function, the Minister of State (Independent Charge), Labour & Employment Shri Bandaru Dattatreya said “we had earlier launched the ‘Employer Registration’ service of Employees’ State Insurance Corporation on eBiz portal in December, 2014 and with today’s launch of Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation’s service, another milestone has been achieved by the Ministry in creating conducive atmosphere for doing business with ease in the country.”

List of 11 services

0S. No.
Ministry/ Dept. Name
Service  Name
Ministry of Corporate Affairs
Name Availability
Ministry of Corporate Affairs
Director Identification Number
Ministry of Corporate Affairs
Certificate of Incorporation
Ministry of Corporate Affairs
Commencement of Business
Central Board of Direct Taxes
Issue of Permanent Account Number (PAN)
Central Board of Direct Taxes
Issue of Tax Deduction Account Number (TAN)
Reserve Bank of India
Advanced Foreign Remittance (AFR)
Reserve Bank of India
Foreign Collaboration-General Permission Route (FC-GPR)
Employees’ Provident Fund Organization
Employer Registration
Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization
Issue of Explosive License
Directorate General of Foreign Trade
Importer Exporter Code License
(Release ID :115592)

23 January 2014
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry announced the launch of the eBiz platform along with two DIPP services and an integrated payment gateway.

Detailed Writeup on the Project

Thursday, February 19, 2015

Hindu - Indian Calendar - Months and Tithis (Tidhis -Days)

The names of  months of Hindu calendar are derived from the nakshatras associated with the full moon day in that month.

Naksatra - Hindu Month -  Western Month

Chitra -         Chaitra  March-April
Visakha  -   Vaisakha April-May
Jyestha  -   Jyaistha May-June
Purva-asadha  -  Asadha June-July
Sravana -  Sravana July-August
Purva-bhadrapada -  Bhadra August-September
Asvini -  Asvina September-October
Krttika - Kartika October-November
Ardha - Agrahayana - November-December       (Margashira)
Pusya Pausa December-January
Magha -  Magha January-February  - Festivals during Maagha Month
Uttara-phalguni  - Phalguna

Pratipada or Padyami
Dwitiya. or vidiya
Tritiya. or tadiya
Chaturthi or chaviti
Poornima. or Amavasya.

Increasing Education and Skill Training Facilities for Transforming India

Like industrial training institutes, there have to be service skills training institutes. We have  to promote agricultural training institutes also. Therefore in all three important sectors, there have to be training institutes that develop skilled frontline workers or operators. If minimum general education is x class, these institutes must have courses after X class. After X class one can go into an operator training programme or a supervisor training programme which is the diploma course. we need to open diploma courses also in all three sectors - agriculture, industry and services. We need to create education facilities in operator training, supervisor training and two year intermediate academic education so that all people can aspire and join them. It may mean we have to create facilities for 2 crore students per year to join any one of these streams. We have to create capacity for 2 crore people and be happy if there are places where 60% of the capacity is only filled. Which mean the ideal class let us say is 60 but only 36 students are there in the class. In many places there will be shortage of seats and people may have to go to other places. So I feel the important point is creating educational facilities for 2 crore students every year in alternate streams after class 10 is essential to reap demographic dividend.

M.S. Golwalkar - Biography

Golwalkar was born on 19 February 1906 at Ramtek near Nagpur, Maharashtra. It was Magha bahula ekadashi.

Picture Source:

After graduating with a Bachelor's degree in the sciences from the Hislop College in Nagpur in 1926, he joined Benaras Hindu University (BHU) in Varanasi for his Master's degree in science. During this period, he came under the influence of Madan Mohan Malaviya, a nationalist leader and the founder of the University. After completing his degree in 1928, he went to Madras to pursue his doctorate in Marine Life but was unable to complete it for financial reasons. Later, he served at BHU as a professor for three years, teaching zoology. It was here that he earned from his students the affectionate sobriquet of 'Guruji', owing to his beard, long hair and simple robe. Golwalkar returned to Nagpur and  had obtained an LL.B. Degree also by 1935.

In Nagpur, Golwalkar came into contact with the Ramakrishna Mission.  He started visiting the President of Sri Ramakrishna Ashram, Swami Bhaskareshvarananda in Nagpur. There he came in close and friendly contact with Sri Amitabh Maharaj. He came to know through him that in the Sargachi Ashram, in Bengal, there stayed Swami Akhandananda, a direct disciple of revered Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa. In 1936, one fine day, Shri Guruji quietly left for Sargachi. He visited the Saragachi Ashram in Murshidabad district of West Bengal and became a disciple of Swami Akhandananda, a direct disciple of Ramakrishna and a companion of  Vivekananda. He stayed in Saragachi Ashram and served the old Swamiji.  On 13 January 1937, he was initiated into the order and eventually, received his diksha.  He returned to Nagpur after his guru died in February 1937.

Golwalkar joined RSS  was he lectured at BHU. He went to the RSS' "Officers Training Camp" in Nagpur. Hedgewar persuaded him to take a more active role in the RSS after his return to Nagpur in 1937. He was appointed General Secretary of the RSS in 1939. Golwalkar was asked to look after RSS by Hedgewar before his death.

In his role as the Sarsanghachalak, Golwalkar expanded the RSS into a nationwide organization.  He  developed a network of numerous socio-cultural organisations in the entire country which now called the Sangh Parivar. The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (political party), Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (trade union), Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (students union), Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram (Tribal welfare) are important nationwide organizations, that were started by Swayamsevaks who were inspired by Guruju to start organizations in various fields of public life and promote unity of Hindus.

RSS expanded into Jammu and  Kashmir in 1940. Balraj Madhok went  as a pracharak to Jammu, with Prem Nath Dogra acting as the pranta sanghchalak. A shakha was started in Srinagar in 1944 and Golwalkar himself visited Srinagar in 1946.  When Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in January 1948 by Nathuram Godse, a former member of Hindu Mahasabha,  Golwalkar was arrested on 4 February, along with 20,000 swayamsevaks, and the RSS was banned on charges of promoting "violence" and "subversion."  Godse declared that he acted on his own initiative and no connection between the RSS and the Gandhi's assassination has ever been made officially. Golwalkar was released on 5 August after the expiry of the six month statutory period.

The ban on the RSS however continued, and Golwalkar tried to negotiate with the then Home Minister Vallabhbhai Patel about lifting the ban. Golwalkar responded by launching a satyagraha on 9 December 1948. Golwalkar was arrested once again, along with 60,000 RSS volunteers. The RSS leaders developed a written a constitution for the RSS and has discussions with  Patel.  The ban on RSS was subsequently lifted on 11 July 1949.

The ban or RSS alerted Golwalkar to the need for a political party to support RSS. Shyam Prasad Mukherjee was interested in starting a new party and Guruji sent some senior RSS members and pracharaks to work with Shyam Prasad Mukherjee. Thus Bharatiya Jana Sangh had RSS members as founding party members.

In January 1963, came the birth centenary of Swami Vivekananda. The RSS got involved in spreading  his immortal message throughout the length and breadth of the country under the guidance of Shri. Guruji.

It was also decided to erect a grand memorial as an eternal symbol and source of inspiration for the people of Bharat at the very rocky spot off Kanyakumari, in the sea, where Swami Vivekananda sat meditating about the future of Bharat. Shri Guruji deputed the then All India Baudhika Pramukh of RSS, Eknathji Ranade to look organize  this project. He involved,  the Swayamsevaks  in collecting donations throughout the country and the project got the support of all the parties, organizations and the government.

The Vivekananada memorial stands today as an epicenter of inspiration about thinking about the future of the country. Swai Vivekananda  talked of balanced development of material and spiritual aspects of the society and individual. He was proud of India's world teachership in the spiritual side of life. But he was pained due to its deterioration in material aspect.  He tried to strengthen the spiritual aspect further and took steps to remove the weakness in material aspect.

His collected speeches and papers published as a book, Bunch of Thoughts is a widely quoted book.

He left the land he loved on 5 June 1973 for the other world.


राष्ट्रिय योद्धा upload

Shri Guruji Golwalkar
Mahesh Sharma
Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd., 2006 - 392 pages

Birthdays and Biographies - Famous Indians

Maharashtra State Budget 2014 - 15

Budget basis for 2015-16

Inflation y-o-y  January 2015  5.11%
If we assume 10% growth rate the budget amounts have to be higher by around 15%.

Maharashtra State Budget 2014 - 15

Projected revenue deficit:  of Rs 4,103 crore (against Rs 3,017 crore in 2013-14)

The revenue deficit is 0.2 per cent of gross state domestic product (GSDP).

At Rs 30,965 crore, the state government’s fiscal deficit is 1.9 per cent of the GSDP.
Debt of Rs 3,00,477 crore accounts for 18.2 per cent of GSDP.

At current prices, the GSDP is estimated at Rs 16,53,381 crore.

Estimated revenue receipts: Rs 1,80,320 crore  (15.6% increases)
Revenue expenditure:  Rs 1,84,423 crore.  (18.37% increase)

Maharashtra's budget for 2013-14. 

Key highlights of the budget

Revenue surplus budget of Rs 184.38 crore

Revenue receipts estimate at Rs 1,55,986.95 crore

Revenue expenditure estimate at Rs 1,55,802.57 crore

Annual plan sized proposed at Rs 46,938 crore for 2013-14 compared to Rs 45,000 crore in 2012-13

Total tax proposals to mobilize at Rs 1,150 crore

Tax Mobilisation

Sales Tax & VAT Rs 62,422 crore in 2013-14 compared to Rs 53,361 crore in 2012-13

Stamp Duty & Registration Rs 17,703 crore in 2013-14 against Rs 15,730 crore in 2012-13

Motor Vehicle Tax Rs 4,750 crore in 2013-14 against Rs 4,200 crore in 2012-13

Revenue surplus budget of Rs 184.38 crore compared to Rs 156 crore in 2012-13

Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Shri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa - Biography, Teaching and Message

You can read What Swami Vivekananda wrote about his Guru - My Master (Sri Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa)

In the above article you will see all the details mentioned in this article.

Initial Days of Ramakrishna

Ramakrishna was born on 18 February 1836, in the village of Kamarpukur, in the Hooghly district of West Bengal, into an orthodox brahmin family. His parents were Khudiram Chattopadhyay and Chandramani Devi.

Ramakrishna was educated in the modern education system for 12 years but  rejected that  "bread-winning education" and attended the satsangs of holy men and became well-versed in the Puranas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata. Ramakrishna used to have trances from the age of six. From his 10th or 11th year on, the trances became common, and by the final years of his life, Ramakrishna's samadhi periods occurred almost daily. Ramakrishna's father died in 1843, after which family responsibilities fell on his elder brother Ramkumar. Ramakrishna spent more  time in household activities and daily worship of the household deities Ramkumar started a Sanskrit school in Calcutta and also served as a priest. Ramakrishna moved to Calcutta in 1852 with Ramkumar.

In 1855 Ramkumar was appointed as the priest of Dakshineswar Kali Temple, built by Rani Rashmoni—a rich lady of Calcutta.  Ramakrishna was assisting  Ramkumar. Ramkumar died in 1856 and Ramakrishna was made the priest of the  temple.

As a priest, Ramakrishna became more immersed in spiritual contemplation. He began to look upon goddess Kali as his mother and the mother of the universe.

Five-year-old Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya was selected as the ideal partner for Ramakrishna and the marriage was solemnised in 1859.  After the marriage, Sarada stayed at Jayrambati, her father's place and joined Ramakrishna in Dakshineswar at her  age of 18.

As a priest Ramakrishna performed the ritual ceremony—the Shodashi Puja–where Sarada Devi was made to sit in the seat of goddess Kali, and worshiped as the Divine mother. Ramakrishna regarded Sarada as the Divine Mother in person, addressing her as the Holy Mother, and it was by this name that she was known to Ramakrishna's disciples.

Formal Spiritual Training of Shri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

In 1861, Ramakrishna accepted Bhairavi Brahmani, an orange-robed, middle-aged female ascetic, as a teacher. She carried with her the Raghuvir Shila, a stone icon representing Ram and all Vaishnava deities. She was thoroughly conversant with the texts of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and practised Tantra. According to the Bhairavi, Ramakrishna was experiencing phenomena that accompany mahabhava—the supreme attitude of loving devotion towards the divine. The Bhairavi initiated Ramakrishna into Tantra. Tantrism focuses on the worship of shakti and the object of Tantric training is to transcend the barriers between the holy and unholy as a means of achieving liberation and to see all aspects of the natural world as manifestations of the divine shakti. Under her guidance, Ramakrishna went through sixty four major tantric sadhanas which were completed in 1863.  Bhairavi also taught Ramakrishna the kumari-puja, a form of ritual in which the Virgin Goddess is worshiped symbolically in the form of a young girl. Under the tutelage of the Bhairavi, Ramakrishna also learnt Kundalini Yoga. The yogic techniques and the tantra played an important part in the initial spiritual development of Ramakrishna.

The Vaishnava Bhakti tradition has five different moods, referred to as bhavas—different attitudes that a devotee can take up to express his love for God. They are: shanta, the “peaceful attitude”; dasya, the attitude of a servant; sakhya, the attitude of a friend; vatsalya, the attitude of a mother toward her child; and madhura, the attitude of a woman towards her lover.

Ramakrishna practised dasya bhava, during which he worshiped Rama with the attitude of Hanuman,  who is considered to be the ideal devotee and servant of Rama. According to Ramakrishna, towards the end of this sadhana, he had a vision of Sita, the consort of Rama, merging into his body.

In 1864, Ramakrishna practised vatsalya bhava under a Vaishnava guru Jatadhari. During this period, he worshipped a metal image of Ramlala (Rama as a child) in the attitude of a mother. According to Ramakrishna, he could feel the presence of child Rama as a living God in the metal image.

Ramakrishna later engaged in the practice of madhura bhava— the attitude of the Gopis and Radha towards Krishna. During the practise of this bhava, Ramakrishna dressed himself in women's attire for several days and regarded himself as one of the Gopis of Vrindavan.  According to Ramakrishna, towards the end of this sadhana, he attained savikalpa samadhi—vision and union with Krishna.

Ramakrishna visited Nadia, the home of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu, the 15th-century founders of Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava bhakti. According to Ramakrishna, he had an intense vision of two young boys merging into his body. Earlier, in the worship of Kali, he is said to have cultivated the Santa bhava.

In 1865, Ramakrishna was initiated into sannyasa by Totapuri, an itinerant monk who trained Ramakrishna in Advaita Vedanta, the Hindu philosophy which emphasises non-dualism. Totapuri first guided Ramakrishna through the rites of sannyasa—renunciation of all ties to the world. Then he instructed him in the teaching of advaita—that "Brahman alone is real, and the world is illusory; I have no separate existence; I am that Brahman alone." Under the guidance of Totapuri, Ramakrishna reportedly experienced nirvikalpa samadhi, which is considered to be the highest state in spiritual realisation.Totapuri stayed with Ramakrishna for nearly eleven months and instructed him further in the teachings of advaita. Ramakrishna said that this period of nirvikalpa samadhi came to an end when he received a command from the Mother Kali to "remain in Bhavamukha; for the enlightenment of the people". Bhavamukha being a state of existence intermediate between samādhi and normal consciousness.

In 1866, Govinda Roy, a Hindu guru who practised Sufism, initiated Ramakrishna into Islam. Ramakrishna said that he "devoutly repeated the name of Allah, wore a cloth like the Arab Muslims, said their prayer five times daily, and felt disinclined even to see images of the Hindu gods and goddesses, much less worship them—for the Hindu way of thinking had disappeared altogether from my mind." According to Ramakrishna, after three days of practice he had a vision of a "radiant personage with grave countenance and white beard resembling the Prophet and merging with his body".

At the end of 1873 he started the practice of Christianity, when his devotee Shambu Charan Mallik read the Bible to him. Ramakrishna said that for several days he was filled with Christian thoughts and no longer thought of going to the Kali temple. Ramakrishna describes of a vision in which the picture of the Madonna and Child became alive and had a vision in which Jesus merged with his body. In his own room amongst other divine pictures was one of Christ, and he burnt incense before it morning and evening. There was also a picture showing Jesus Christ saving St Peter from drowning in the water.

Influence of Ramakrishna as a Spiritual Teacher

In 1875, Ramakrishna met the influential Brahmo Samaj leader Keshab Chandra Sen. Keshab had accepted Christianity, and had separated from the Adi Brahmo Samaj. Formerly, Keshab had rejected idolatry, but under the influence of Ramakrishna he accepted Hindu polytheism and established the "New Dispensation" (Nava Vidhan) religious movement, based on Ramakrishna's principles—"Worship of God as Mother", "All religions as true" and "Assimilation of Hindu polytheism into Brahmoism". Keshab also publicised Ramakrishna's teachings in the journals of New Dispensation over a period of several years.

Following Keshab, other Brahmos such as Vijaykrishna Goswami started to admire Ramakrishna, propagate his ideals and reorient their socio-religious outlook. Many prominent people of Calcutta—Pratap Chandra Mazumdar, Shivanath Shastri and Trailokyanath Sanyal—began visiting him during this time (1871–1885). Mazumdar wrote the first English biography of Ramakrishna, entitled The Hindu Saint in the Theistic Quarterly Review (1879), which played a vital role in introducing Ramakrishna to Westerners like the German indologist Max Müller. Newspapers reported that Ramakrishna was spreading "Love" and "Devotion" among the educated classes of Calcutta is able to influence youth.

Ramakrishna also had interactions with Debendranath Tagore, the father of Rabindranath Tagore, and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, a renowned social worker. He had also met Swami Dayananda.

Among the Europeans who were influenced by Ramakrishna was Principal Dr. W.W. Hastie of the Scottish Church College, Calcutta. In the course of explaining the word trance in the poem The Excursion by William Wordsworth, Hastie told his students that if they wanted to know its "real meaning", they should go to "Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar." This prompted some of his students, including Narendranath Dutta (who later became Swami Vivekananda), to visit Ramakrishna.

His chief disciples who actively propagated his teaching consisted of:

Grihastas or The householders—Mahendranath Gupta, Girish Chandra Ghosh, Mahendra Lal Sarkar, and Akshay Kumar Sen.

Monastic disciples or the earliest monks of the Ramakrishna order—Narendranath Dutta (Swami Vivekananda), Rakhal Chandra Ghosh (Swami Brahmananda), Kaliprasad Chandra (Swami Abhedananda), Taraknath Ghoshal (Swami Shivananda), Sashibhushan Chakravarty (Swami Ramakrishnananda), Saratchandra Chakravarty (Swami Saradananda), Tulasi Charan Dutta (Swami Nirmalananda), Gangadhar Ghatak (Swami Akhandananda), Hari Prasana (Swami Vijnanananda).

A small group of women disciples including Gauri Ma and Yogin Ma. A few of them were initiated into sanyasa through mantra deeksha. Among the women, Ramakrishna emphasised service to other women rather than tapasya (practice of austerities). Gauri Ma founded the Saradesvari Ashrama at Barrackpur, which was dedicated to the education and uplift of women.

As his name spread, an ever-shifting crowd of all classes and castes visited Ramakrishna. Ramakrishna's primary biographers, describe him as talkative. According to the biographers, for hours Ramakrishna would reminisce about his own eventful spiritual life, tell tales, explain Vedantic doctrines with extremely mundane illustrations, raise questions and answer them himself, crack jokes, sing songs, and mimic the ways of all types of worldly people, keeping the visitors enthralled. In preparation for monastic life, Ramakrishna ordered his monastic disciples to beg their food from door to door without distinction of caste. He gave them the saffron robe, the sign of the Sanyasi, and initiated them with Mantra Deeksha.

Sickness and Death

In the beginning of 1885 Ramakrishna suffered from clergyman's throat, which gradually developed into throat cancer. He was moved to Shyampukur near Calcutta and some of the best physicians of the time, including Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar, were engaged. When his condition aggravated he was relocated to a large garden house at Cossipore on 11 December 1885. Ramakrishna was advised by the doctors to keep the strictest silence, but ignoring their advice, he incessantly conversed with visitors even with sickness. According to traditional accounts, before his death, Ramakrishna transferred his spiritual powers to Vivekananda and reassured Vivekananda of his avataric status. Ramakrishna asked Vivekananda to look after the welfare of the disciples asked him to "teach them" further. Ramakrishna also asked other monastic disciples to look upon Vivekananda as their leader.Ramakrishna's condition gradually worsened and he passed away in the early morning hours of 16 August 1886 at the Cossipore garden house. It was his mahasamadhi. After the death of their master, the monastic disciples led by Vivekananda formed a fellowship at a half-ruined house at Baranagar near the river Ganges, with the financial assistance of the householder disciples. This became the first Math or monastery of the disciples who constituted the first Ramakrishna Order.

The principal source for Ramakrishna's teaching is Mahendranath Gupta's Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita in Bengali.  The text was published in five volumes from 1902 to 1932. It was based on Gupta's diary notes, and the five volumes document Ramakrishna's life and teachings during the period 1882–1886.

The most popular English translation of the Kathamrita is The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna by Swami Nikhilananda. Nikhilananda's translation rearranged the scenes in the five volumes of the Kathamrita into a linear sequence.


His spiritual movement  rejected caste distinctions and religious prejudices.

Ramakrishna emphasised God-realisation as the supreme goal of all living beings. Ramakrishna taught that kamini-kanchana is an obstacle to God-realization.  Ramakrishna also cautioned his women disciples against purusa-kanchana ("man and gold"). What it means is the comfort of companions and wealth have to be given up to seek God.

Ramakrishna looked upon the world as Maya and he explained that avidya maya represents dark forces of creation (e.g. sensual desire,selfish actions, evil passions, greed, lust and cruelty), which keep people on lower planes of consciousness. These forces are responsible for human entrapment in the cycle of birth and death, and they must be fought and vanquished. Vidya maya, on the other hand, represents higher forces of creation (e.g. spiritual virtues, selfless action, enlightening qualities, kindness, purity, love, and devotion), which elevate human beings to the higher planes of consciousness.

Ramakrishna practised several religions, including Islam and Christianity, and taught that in spite of the differences, all religions are valid and true and they lead to the same ultimate goal—God. Ramakrishna's taught that jatra jiv tatra Shiv (wherever there is a living being, there is Shiva). His teaching, "Jive daya noy, Shiv gyane jiv seba" (not kindness to living beings, but serving the living being as Shiva Himself) is considered as the inspiration for the philanthropic work carried out by his chief disciple Vivekananda.

Gandhi's Hinduism - Gandhian Hinduism

Monks of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa Order and Their Books

You Can See God in This Life

Spiritual Practices of Sri Rama Krishna Paramahamsa

Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa - Biography and Teaching

I have seen God and I converse with God. You can also see God and converse with him. These were the statements of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Some his disciples used to trouble him frequenty to show them the God. He facilitated their visualization of God.
Swami Vivekananda was one of them. One more such disciple was Swami Brahmananda. For a bigger list of his disciples and their writings visit  Disciples of Ramakrishna.

You can read Vivekananda's account of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa in the article My Master (Sri Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa).
Swami Vivekananda said:
"Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this divinity, within, by controlling nature, external and internal.
Do this either by work, or psychic control, or philosophy - by one, or more, or all of these - and be free. This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details."
The book titled "The Eternal Companion" published by Ramakrishna Mutt contains a brief biography of Swami Brahmananda and some his lectures.
His lectures were addressed to young sanyasins of the mission. He always told them to realize God. Is it easy? No. But he said it was not more difficult than getting a degree. Spiritual practice of number years is required to realize God.
The path recommended by Swamiji is External Worship, Japam (Recitation of a Mantra), Meditation (Thinking deeply about God in solitude) and Samadhi.

External Worship: Worshipping the God in the form of an idol.

Japam: One sings the glory of the Lord, by chanting or repeating the glorious names of the Lord and simultaneously imagining the blessed form behind the holy name. (Vishnu Sahasra Namam )

Meditation: In meditation, japam and prayer do not take place. It is a deep thought about him and myself. As meditation deepens, one will perceive the form of chosen deity.

Samadhi: The actual vision of the Omnipresent Reality.

People start their spiritual practice at a level that suits their interest and temperament and progress towards higher level.
The practitioner (termed sadhaka) has to perform spiritual practices for number of years to develop his mind spiritually. A spiritually developed mind only can realise the vision of a God. When will it take place? It is the mercy of God. But God will certainly show his mercy if a person desires it sincerely.
An interesting analogy was given by Swami Brahmanda and today I was lucky to read a poem on the same theme written by Swami Vivekananda.
Every person in this universe is a like a child who came out of the house to play outside. The mother told the person not go but the child insisted. Mother opened the gate and closed it with anger. Now the child is tired of play and other attractions of the outside. He wants to go back into his house. He calls his mother. But mother is angry. She is asking do you really want to come in. The child has to convince the mother that he is really tired of outside. He wants to come in. But the divine mother knows everything from inside. Does the child really want to? Every person who wants to see God is like this child.

For a poem of mine on this theme of a child going for wordly play from spiritual house.

You have to really want to see the God by doing the required effort. Will it take few lives?. You must be prepared. Why? There is perpetual bliss in the spiritual world. Do you want to put in 40 year effort for the eternal bliss? Do you want to put in 20 years effort for perpetual bliss? Do you want to put in 10 years effort for perpetual bliss? Do you want to put in 5 years effort for perpetual bliss? You decide the number of years to want to put in and make the effort and look for the result.
Swami Brahmananda said the young age of 16 to 30 years was the best period of spiritual quest.
Ramakrishna - Vivekananda Center of New York 
17 East 94th Street
New York, NY 10128
(212) 534-9445
(212) 828-1618

Services and Classes
Swami Yuktatmananda conducts services on Sundays, Tuesdays, and Fridays. A brief description of the services are as follows:
Sunday Services
On Sunday mornings at 11:00 A.M., Swami Yuktatmananda conducts the service and lectures on spiritual topics of practical importance. Some of these topics are: The Ways of Human Mind, Spiritual Transformation, The Message of Self-Knowledge, Vedanta and the Contemporary Religious Ferment, The True Spiritual Awakening, Guidelines for Mature Living, Action and Meditation, Harmony of Religions, The Problem of Suffering, Christ and His Message, Buddha and His Way, and others.
Weekday Classes
On Tuesday evenings at 8:00 P.M., Swami Yuktatmananda conducts a class on The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, and on Friday evenings at 8:00 P.M., a class on the scriptures of Vedanta: The Upanishads, The Bhagavad Gita, The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali, The Crest Jewel of Discrimination, The Works of Swami Vivekananda, The Teachings of the Direct Disciples of Sri Ramakrishna, Narada Bhakti Sutras, Uddhava Gita: The Last Message of Sri Krishna, and others.
Special Services
The Center holds special services each year on the occasions of Sri Ramakrishna's Birthday, Holy Mother's Birthday, Swami Vivekananda's Birthday, Buddha's Birthday, Sri Sri Durga Puja, Christmas, Good Friday, and Easter. As part of these special services, the Choir of the Center performs traditional hymns and songs, both Western and Eastern. All the services and classes of the Center are free and open to the public.
Special Lectures and Seminars
Swami Yuktatmananda arranges special lectures and seminars at the Center for groups of students from colleges, universities, and other organizations who wish to visit the Center and learn more about its teachings. On special occasions, Swamis from other centers, spiritual leaders of different faiths, community leaders, and academicians are invited by Swami Yuktatmananda to speak at the Center.

Library & Bookstall

The Center maintains a Library and a Bookstall for the benefit of the members and the public. The Library is regularly used by members and friends of the Center, and contains a large number of books and periodicals on Vedanta and other philosophical and religious systems of the world. The Bookstall provides a valuable resource for Ramakrishna-Vivekananda literature, and books on Vedanta and other religious traditions. In addition, photographs and incense may be purchased here.

Other Ramakrishna Mission Centers in USA

Vivekananda Cottage at Thousand Island Park
The Center also maintains the Vivekananda Cottage, a summer cottage at Thousand Island Park, New York, in which Swami Vivekananda lived and taught for eight weeks in the summer of 1895. The teachings given at Thousand Island Park by Swami Vivekananda form part of the Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda and are published by our Center as Inspired Talks.
The Vivekananda Cottage is located about 360 miles from New York City, near the Canadian border on Wellesley Island on the St. Lawrence River. It is generally available during the months of July and August as a place of pilgrimage for devotees who wish to visit. 

Main website of Ramakrishna Mission


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