Saturday, January 31, 2015

Oilseeds Farming in India, USA and World - Opportunities, Challenges and Productivity

2013 Gross output of Oil Seeds in USA  $44,948 Million =  $44.948 billion


The major U.S. oilseed crops are soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowerseed, canola, rapeseed, and peanuts. Soybeans are the dominant oilseed in the United States, accounting for about 90 percent of U.S. oilseed production. Most U.S. soybeans are planted in May and early June and harvested in late September and October (see Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops for soybean dates by region).

Large-scale production of soybeans did not begin until the 20th century in the United States, but area planted to soybeans has expanded rapidly. Soybeans are the second-most-planted field crop in the United States after corn, with 77.5 million acres planted in 2009. Increased planting flexibility, steadily rising yield improvements from narrow-rowed seeding practices, a greater number of 50-50 corn-soybean rotations, and low production costs (partly due to widespread adoption of herbicide-tolerant varieties) favored expansion of soybean acreage. More than 80 percent of U.S. soybean acreage is concentrated in the upper Midwest, although significant amounts are still planted in the historically important areas of the Delta and Southeast. Acreage tends to be concentrated where soybean yields are highest.

Processed soybeans are the world's largest source of animal protein feed and the second largest source of vegetable oil. The United States is the leading soybean producer and exporter. Soybeans comprise about 90 percent of U.S. oilseed production, while other oilseeds--including peanuts, sunflowerseed, canola, and flax--make up the remainder. ERS provides analysis and data that include:

Current and historical data on oilseed production, uses, farm-level prices, and trade.

U.S. soybean planted acreage:
   2010: 77.4 million acres
   2011: 75.0 million acres
Farm cash receipts, soybean production:
   2010: $37.6 billion
   2011: $40.2 billion (forecast)
U.S. soybean production:
      2010: 3,329 million bushels
   2011: 3,060 million bushels (estimated)
2010 crop year average: $11.30 per bushel
   2011 crop year average: $13.15 per bushel (forecast)

India - Oilseed Farming

Oilseeds constitute a very important group of commercial crops in India.

India has the largest area and production of oilseeds in the world. Five major oil seeds viz., groundnut, sesamum, rapeseed and mustard, linseed and castor seed occupied 212.24 lakh hectares (2002-03) which is over 15 per cent of the net area sown.

If the area occupied by other oilseeds such as soyabean, cotton seed, sunflower, safflower and nigerseed is also included, the total area occupied by oilseeds becomes about 20 per cent of the net area sown.

A few states like Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal increased their oilseed production both through area expansion and productivity improvement.

States like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh increased their oilseed output mainly through productivity improvement. In some states like Orissa, area productivity and production declined sharply.


Groundnut is the most important oilseed of India and accounts for a little less than half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.

Conditions of Growth:

It thrives best in the tropical climate and requires 20°-30°C temperature and 50-75 cm rainfall. Isohyet of 100 cm marks the upper limit of groundnut cultivation. It is highly susceptible to frost, prolonged drought, continuous rain and stagnant water.

Dry winter is needed at the time of ripening. It can be grown both as a kharif and as a rabi crop but 91 per cent of the total area under groundnut is devoted to kharif crop. Well drained light sandy loams, loams, red, yellow and black cotton soils are well suited for its cultivation.

Production and Distribution:

India is the largest producer of groundnut in the world and accounts for about one-third of the world’s production. There had been almost 150 per cent increase in the production of groundnut from 34.8 lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to a record production of 85.6 lakh tonnes in 1992-93.

 Production fell from 70.28 lakh tonnes in 2001-02 to 43.63 lakh tonnes in 2002-03 due to failure of monsoon rainfall in 2002-03.

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are the three main producers. These three states together account for over 65 per cent of total production of India. Gujarat is the largest producer contributing over 25 per cent of India’s total production.

Tamil Nadu is the second largest producer accounting for over 22 per cent of the total groundnut produced in India.

Andhra Pradesh is the third largest producer of groundnut in India and accounts for over 18 per cent of India’s total production. About 50 per cent of the state’s production comes from Chittoor, Kurnool and Anantpur districts, though other districts also produce sufficient groundnut.

Sesamum (Til):

Sesamum contains 45 to 50 per cent oil which is used for cooking purposes and for manufacturing perfumery and medicines. Sesamum seeds are used in food items. Its oil-cake is fed to milch cattle.

Conditions of Growth:

Sesamum is a rainfed crop and requires 45-50 cm rainfall. It thrives well in areas having 21° – 23°C temperature. Frost, prolonged drought and heavy rains for a longer duration are harmful to this crop. Well-drained light loamy soils are best suited to sesamum. It is cultivated in plains as well as on elevations upto 1,300 metres. It is grown as a kharif crop in the north and as a rabi crop in the south.

Production and Distribution:

India has the world’s largest area under sesamum and is also the largest producer of this crop accounting for one-third of the world production. it is a rainfed crop. There has been an overall 87 per cent increase in its production from 4.5 lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to a record 8.4 lakh tonnes in 1990-91.

The overall production declined from 698 thousand tonnes in 2001-02 to 433 thousand tonnes in 2002-03.

Sesamum is produced in almost all parts of the country but Gujarat is the largest producing state. In 2002-03 this state produced over 28 per cent of the total production of India. The other major producers are West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Rapeseed and Mustard:

Next to groundnut, rapeseed and mustard are two most important oilseeds of India. The oil content of these seeds is 25-45% which is used as a cooking medium, preservative for pickles, lubricants and toiletteries. Oil cake forms an important cattle-feed and is also used as manure.

Conditions of Growth:

Like wheat and gram, they thrive only in cool climate of the Satluj-Ganga plain and very small quantity is grown in the peninsular India. They are mainly grown as rabi crop in pure or mixed form with wheat, gram and barley.

Production and Distribution:

India has the largest area and the highest production of rapeseed and mustard in the world. There has been nearly four-fold increase in their production in three decades from 1960-61 to 1991 after which varying trends of production have been noticed.

The production reached the peak of 6,658 thousand tonnes in 1996-97 after which the production declined considerably. In the year 2002-03 only 3,918 thousand tonnes of rapeseed was produced in India.

Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are the two major producers of these two oilseeds and contribute over 53 per cent of the total production of India. Uttar Pradesh has been traditionally the largest producer of rapeseed and mustard but according to 2002-03 figures, Rajasthan has overtaken Uttar Pradesh to become the largest producer.

In that year Rajasthan produced 1,318 thousand tonnes (33.64%) against 759 thousand tonnes (19.37%) produced by Uttar Pradesh. Haryana is the third largest producer contributing 694 thousand tonnes (17.71%).


Linseed has 35 to 47 per cent oil content. This oil has a unique drying property and is used for manufacturing paints, varnishes, printing ink, oil-cloth, and water-proof fabrics. It is also used as an edible oil in some parts of the country.

Conditions of Growth:

Although this crop can be grown under varied geographical conditions, it prefers cool, moist climate with about 20°C temperature and 75 cm rainfall. Clay loams, deep black soils and alluvial soils are best suited for its cultivation. It can be cultivated upto a height of 800 metres above sea level. It is a rabi-crop which is sown in Oct-Nov. and harvested in March-April.

Production and Distribution:

India produces about 10 per cent of world’s linseed and is world’s third largest producer after Russia and Canada. However, there had been almost consistent decline in production during the last few years and the production had fallen from 309 thousand tonnes in 1995-96 to 173 thousand tonnes in 2002-03.

Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra are the main producers accounting for about four-fifths of the total production of India. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer accounting for 45 thousand tonnes (26%) of linseed. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest producer with 37 thousand tonnes (21.4%) of linseed to its credit.

Bihar is the third largest producer of linseed in India. In 2002-03, this state produced 26 thousand tonnes of linseed which was over 15 per cent of the all India production.  Chhattisgarh produced 16 lakh tonnes (9.2%) linseed in 2002- 03.

Maharashtra produced 13 thousand tonnes accounting for over 7 per cent of the total production of India.

Castor Seed:

Castor seed contains 50 per cent oil which is used for various purposes such as lubricant in various machines, hair oil, lighting and for manufacturing soap and leather tanning. Oil-cake is used as manure and leaves of the plant are fed to silk worms.

Conditions of Growth:

Castor seed plant grows into a small tree and is generally raised as a mixed crop in tropical and sub-tropical climates. It thrives well in areas of 20°-25°C temperature and 50-75 cm rainfall. It is grown on red sandy loams in the peninsular India and on light alluvial soils of the Satluj-Ganga plain. Almost the whole area of castor seed production is rainfed. It is a kharif crop in the north and a rabi crop in the south.

Production and Distribution:

India is the second largest producer of castor seed after Brazil and produces about one-fifth of the total world production. The production increased from a meagre one lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to all time record of over nine lakh tonnes in 1996-97.

Thereafter, the production fell sharply and stood at 4.3 lakh tonnes only in 2002-03. Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan are the main producers. Gujarat is the largest producer of castor seed in India. This state produced 283 thousand tonnes of castor seed out of a total of 428 thousand tonnes produced by the entire country in 2002-03. Thus Gujarat alone accounted for about two thirds of the total production.

Andhra Pradesh was a distant second producer and produced only 85 thousand tonnes (19.9 per cent of all India) in 2002-03. Nalgonda, Mahbubnagar, Hyderabad, Warangal and Prakasam contribute the major part of production. The remaining castor seed is produced by Rajasthan, Orissa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Productivity of Oil Seed Production in India

Indian oilseeds: present status and future needs,
1998 Paper

India is one of the leading oilseeds producing countries with 21 % of world's area and 15% of world's production in the world.

In India, oilseeds form the second largest agricultural commodities after cereals sharing 13% of the country's gross cropped area and accounts for nearly 5% of gross national product and 10% of the value of all agricultural products. There are 9 important oilseed crops, viz groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), rapeseed-mustard, sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus.L), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], niger [Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.], castor (Ricinus communis L.) and linseed (linum  usitatissimum. L.). There is a vast research infrastructure of oilseeds which includes the Directorate of Oilseeds Research.'the National Research Centres for Groundnut, Soybean and Rapeseed-Mustard besides a network of All-India Co-ordinated Research Project on Oilseeds centres located in the state agricultural universities. The establishment of Technology Mission on Oilseeds (TMO) has changed country's oil seeds scenario and brought near self-sufficiency in vegetable oils. There was a tremendous increase in the growth rates of area, production and productivity in each of the oilseed crops during the post-TMO periods. The productivity gains ,in each of the crops have come about primarily due to adoption of better technologies by the farmers. The latest technology packages developed in each of the oilseed crops which include recently released varieties and recommendations for  crop production and protection are given in the paper. The improved technology was tested at the farmers' fields under the project Frontline Demonstrations in Oilseed Crops. The tests showed the beneficial impact of improved
technologies over the current practices. The incremental benefit: cost ratio clearly showed that the technologies are cost effective. As such, substantial improvement in oilseeds production can be achieved if the recommended  technologies are adopted  by the oilseeds farmers.

Adoption is the challenge.

World Oilseed Production 2009 to 2015

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