World Developments - Smart Cities
Know About World Smart Cities
http://www.worldsmartcity.org/ 16 July 2016 World Smartcity Forum
Four Main Themes of the Forum
Transportation/Mobility for smart cities http://www.worldsmartcity.org/category/mobility/
Water for smart cities http://www.worldsmartcity.org/category/water/
Energy for smart cities
Cybersecurity and privacy for smart cities
World's Smart Cities: San Diego
Top 10 Smart Cities - 2014 - IESE Rankings http://www.ieseinsight.com/doc.aspx?id=1582
India Development - Smart Cities
Smart Cities Guidelines
Tata's Concept for Smart Public Transport in Smart Cities
13 new smart cities announced by govt24 May 2016
Lucknow, New Town in Kolkata, Bhagalpur, Dharamsala, Chandigarh, Faridabad, Raipur, Ranchi, Warangal, Agartala, Imphal, Port Blair and Panaji
Smart cities - Critical voices
28 Jan 2016
First batch of 20 smart cities today.
Bhubaneswar, NDMC Delhi,
Pune, Jaipur, Surat, Kochi, Ahmedabad, Jabalpur, Visakhapatnam, Solapur, Davanagere, Indore, Coimbatore, Kakinada, Belagavi, Udaipur, Guwahati, Chennai, Ludhiana and Bhopal
98 cities were identified for 100 Smart Cities Project. Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir have to pick up one each soon to touch 100 cities mark.
The announcement of future smart cities list is raising hope. Development, especially roads and highways, would have a multiplier effect and boost rural jobs. Experts say the infrastructure is the backbone of the smart city mission which is all set to get boost due to these developments.
The list of cities includes Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Ghaziabad, Bareilly and Agra from Uttar Pradesh, Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Salem, Vellore, Chennai, Coimbatore and Madurai from Tamil Nadu, Nashik, Thane, Solapur, Nagpur, Navi Mumbai, Aurangabad and Pune from Maharashtra, and Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur, Gwalior and Ujjain from Madhya Pradesh. It also encompasses Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar and Baroda in Gujarat, and Bhagalpur and Muzaffarpur in Bihar.
Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have the maximum number of 12 cities under the list followed by Maharashtra with 10, Madhya Pradesh with seven, Karnataka and Gujarat with six each, Rajasthan with four, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab with three each. Of those chosen for the project, 24 are capital cities, as many business hubs and 18 cultural centers.
Eight smart cities nominees have a population of one lakh and below, while 35 cities and towns between one to five lakh. There are 21 cities, with a population ranging between five to 10 lakh, 28 cities above 10 lakh and below 25 lakh. A set of five cities are in the population range of 25 to50 lakh.
Four cities- Chennai, Greater Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Greater Mumbai-have population of above 50 lakh. Population statistics suggest that 64 towns and cities are in the category of small to medium, while the remaining 34 are large ones.
The Government will release Rs 2 crore for each of the 98 cities for preparation of smart city plans. The region-wise panels of reputed agencies for assisting smart cities aspirants for preparation of smart city plans have been formed by the urban ministry. In the second stage of the city challenge competition, all smart city plans received by the Urban Development ministry will be evaluated, based on a set of six broad criteria. The top scoring 20 cities in the first round of competition in the second stage will be chosen for financing during this financial year. The remaining will be asked to address the deficiencies identified before participating in the second and the third rounds of competition. Forty cities each will be identified for financing during the second and third rounds.
The Central government proposes to give financial support to Mission to the extent of Rs 48,000 crore over five years. The chosen smart city will be given Rs 100 crore per city per year over the next five years. Accordingly, the Central government has made a provision of Rs 48000 crore for the next five years for the smart cities mission. The States/UTs and Urban local bodies have to make an equal matching contribution. This in effect means that Central and state governments and ULBs will invest about Rs 1 lakh crore over the next five years for making 100 chosen cities smart.
Smart city plans will be implemented by a special purpose vehicle to be set up for each identified city to enable a focused effort for effective implementation.
Urban population, according to 2011 census, was about 37 crore accounting for 31 per cent of total population. The cities also generate 63% of the nation’s economic activity. These numbers are rapidly increasing, with almost half of India’s population projected to live in its cities by 2030.
A statutory town is one that has a municipal body. There are 4,041 statutory cities/ town as per 2011 records. Out of these, about 500 cities with a population of above one lakh each, are focus of AMRUT. These 500 cities account for 73 per cent of India’s urban population. Number of cities that can be nominated for AMRUT so far are like this : A&N ( 1), Andhra Pradesh (31), Arunachal Pradesh (1 ), Assam(7), Delhi( 1), Karnataka( 27), Kerala( 18), Uttar Pradesh (54), WB (28) Maharashtra ( 37), Bihar ( 27), Jharkhand(11) etc.
AMRUT, entailing an investment of Rs50,000 crore, envisages proper infrastructure services relating to water supply, sewerage, seepage management, storm water drains, transport and development of green spaces and parks with special plans of meeting needs of children.
A reform matrix with timelines will be circulated to states in the guidelines. JNNURM projects relating to the urban development sanctioned during 2005-2012 and achieved physical progress of fifty per cent availing 50 per cent central assistance released and those sanctioned during 2012-2014 will be supported till March 2017. Accordingly, 102 and 296 projects will get central support for balance funding to complete these projects.
India - Smart City - Concept
A Smart City to be developed as a well planned city is a sustainable business and residential area of 2 to 10 lakh population.
For its sustainability, a smart city needs to offer economic activities and employment opportunities
to a wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of education, skills or income levels. In planning a smart city, planners need to identify comparative or unique advantage and core competence in specific areas of economic activities and have to develop the required institutional, physical, social and economic infrastructures for it and promote those features and their benefits to
attract investors and professionals to take up those economic activities. It also needs to support
the required skill development for such activities in a big way. This would help a Smart
City in developing the required environment for creation of economic activities and
Apart from employment, it is also important for a Smart City to offer decent living options to every resident. This would mean that it will have to provide a very high quality of life (comparable with any developed European City) i.e. good quality but affordable housing, cost efficient physical, social and institutional infrastructure such as adequate and quality water supply, sanitation, 24 x 7 electric supply, clean air, quality education, cost efficient health care, dependable security, entertainment, sports, robust and high speed interconnectivity, fast & efficient urban mobility etc.
Smart Cities have to attract investments and experts & professionals. Good quality infrastructure, simple and transparent online business and public services processes that make it easy to practice one’s profession or to establish an enterprise and run it efficiently without any bureaucratic hassles are essential features of a citizen centric and investor-friendly smart city. Adequate availability of the required skills in the labour force is a necessary requirement for sustainability of a Smart City. Entrepreneurs, themselves, look for a decent living and so they also look for smart housing, high level of healthcare, entertainment and quality education. Safety and security is a basic need for them as to any other resident. A city that is considered unsafe is not attractive. Besides an entrepreneur or a professional needs to be there as someone who helps a city to prosper and adds value to it rather than
someone who only benefits from it.
Smart City will have:
Competitiveness: It refers to a city’s ability to create employment opportunities, attract investments, experts, professionals and people. The ease of being able to do business and the quality of life it offers determines its competitiveness.
Sustainability: It includes social sustainability, environmental sustainability and financial sustainability.
Quality of Life: It includes safety and security, inclusiveness, entertainment, ease of seeking and obtaining public services, cost efficient healthcare, quality education, transparency, accountability and opportunities for participation in governance.
Pillars of a Smart City
Institutional Infrastructure (including Governance), Physical Infrastructure, Social Infrastructure and Economic Infrastructure constitute the four pillars on which a city rests. The centre of attention for each of these pillars is the citizen. In other words a Smart City works towards ensuring the best
for its entire people, regardless of social status, age, income levels, gender, etc.
Institutional Infrastructure refers to the activities that relate to governance,
planning and management of a city. The new technology (ICT) has provided a new
dimension to this system making it citizen-centric, efficient, accountable and
transparent. It includes the participatory systems of governance, e-governance,
inclusive governance, the sense of safety and security and the opportunities for
Physical Infrastructure refers to its stock of cost-efficient and intelligent
physical infrastructure such as the urban mobility system, the housing stock, the
energy system, the water supply system, sewerage system, sanitation facilities,
solid waste management system, drainage system, etc. which are all integrated
through the use of technology.
Social Infrastructure relate to those components that work towards developing
the human and social capital, such as the education, healthcare, entertainment, etc.
It also includes performance and creative arts, sports, the open spaces, children’s
parks and gardens.
These together determine the quality of life of citizens in a city. It is also
necessary that city promotes inclusiveness and city has structures which
proactively bring disadvantageous sections i.e. SCs, STs, socially and financially
backwards, minorities, disabled and women into the mainstream of development.
For a city to attract investments and to create the appropriate economic
infrastructurefor employment opportunities, it has to first identify its core
competence, comparative advantages and analyse its potential for generating
economic activities. Once that is done, the gaps in required economic
infrastructure can be determined. This would generally comprise the following:
Skill Development Centres
Industrial Parks and Export Processing Zones
IT / BT Parks
Financial Centers and Services
Logistics hubs, warehousing and freight terminals
Mentoring and Counselling services
Our existing cities are witnessing rapid motorization. This has led to severe congestion,
deteriorating air quality, increasing incidence of road accidents and a rapidly increasing
energy bill. Walking and cycling have been rendered unsafe due to poor infrastructure and
public transport has been inadequate. Urban living is making having the personal motor vehicle essential. Public transport systems have been planned in isolation with the result that a well-integrated multi-modal system has not come up. This has resulted in high cost facilities not giving the outcomes that were sought.
Ease of being able to move from one place to another is at the core of a “Smart
City”. Seoul, Singapore, Yokohama and Barcelona (all considered Smart Cities) have a
sound transport system as the core of their “Smartness”. The smart transport system
emphasizes walking, cycling and public transport as the primary means for mobility with
personal motor vehicles being actively discouraged. In fact, smart cities lay considerable
emphasis on the walkability and cycling in the city. The pedestrian is given a place of
prominence as every trip has a leg that involves walking. However, smart city need to look
into the bottlenecks of road/rail networks also and wherever required underpasses,
elevated roads, additional rail networks need to be put in place urgently.
Cycling is one of the, most cost efficient and environmentally sustainable mode for
commuting in cities. Many cities across the world have given emphasis to it and developed
the required infrastructure for promoting cycling. Also programs like bicycle sharing such
as Velib in Paris can be promoted to decongest the CBDs.
If cities are to be efficient engines of economic growth, it is important that goods
are able to move from production centres to consumption centres at low cost and high
speed. Therefore, a good freight movement system acquires importance.
Hence, improved mobility will involve a three pronged approach whereby there are:
1. Improvements in public transport – Metro Rail, BRT, LRT, Monorail, Trams etc.
2. Improvements in infrastructure of other motor vehicles – ring roads, bypasses,
underpasses, elevated roads, improvements in the existing road ways
3. Improvements in infrastructure for walking, cycling and waterways
Reliable Utility Services
Reliable, adequate and high quality Utility services are critical in a Smart City.
Whether it is electricity or telephony or ICT services, they need to be very reliable and
adequate. 24x7 services are necessary. For example, a minimum of 100 Mbps of internet
bandwidth and wide availability of Wi-Fi will be very important features. It should be the
right of every citizen to get these facilities on demand. Similarly, municipal services such
water supply, drainage, solid waste management need to be of very high quality and
available 24x7. Telephone services based on Direct-to-Home Fibre should be available for
every household. A Smart City cannot have only a few hours of water supply a day or
electricity that goes off for several hours or the streets littered with garbage. The
general appearance of the city has to be pleasing and clean. The main utilities that need
to ensured are the following:
Safe and adequate water supply is a public good as it has very large positive
externalities. Access to water supply is important for all the urban residents and lack of
safe water supply can keep the mortality rates high in general and among the poor in
particular. It has been estimated that access to water increases the productive working
hours of urban poor in general and the poor women in particular by 1.5 to 2 hours. Smart
cities should therefore have adequate availability of piped water supply that also meets
benchmarks of water quality, pressure, etc. across the city. Dual water supply systems
that serve the needs of drinking water and other needs would help in recycling water and
conserving it. Adoption of new methods especially smart metering for reducing loss and
energy consumption in water networks needs to be ensured. This is possible by installing
sensors in the supply system that measure water consumption, water levels, and water
flow rates on a real time basis. These models will help in not only identifying and localize
leaks, it would also assist to optimize energy consumption in the network. In addition,
smart water meters may be installed for measuring water consumption more efficiently
and providing water customers with data to help them monitor their water usage and
Sanitation is important for all the urban residents. Lack of sanitation causes
outbreaks of epidemics, health disorders and keeps the mortality rates high in general
and among the poor in particular. It is well known that higher incidences of morbidity
pushes low income households below the poverty line. It is therefore essential that cities
should have a City Wide Sanitation Plan for all parts of the city. The Plan is expected to
be based on the concept of Decentralized Sewerage and Solid Waste Management
System. Also, each and every household should have a toilet so that no citizen needs to
defecate in the open. Further, all commercial and other public buildings should have clean
and hygienic toilets. There is a need for 100% recycling in the sanitation system. Idea is
that not even a drop of waste water should go out of the local area (one such example of
New Moti Bagh Township in New Delhi). Moreover, only treated water should get into
water body i.e. lake, pond, river etc.
Internet and Telephone
A 100 Mbps internet backbone coupled with 100% coverage of the area by cell
phone towers and a high level of telephone penetration will be essential in a Smart City as
most services will have to be offered online. Local service providers should also have
multiple service kiosks that can be accessed by people for evaluating public services and
accessing public information. Fibre Optic connectivity to each home, Wi-Fi in all public
places and educational institutions would be important features of a Smart City. This
would need a transparent and efficient system of providing Right of Way by Municipal
Individual Smart City - Plans, Programmes and Achievements
Updated 11 April 2017, 24 May 2016, 9 Feb 2016, 28 Jan 2016, 24 Sep, 5 May 2015