Friday, March 10, 2017

Jawaharal Nehru - Biography

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Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889 - 27 May 1964

2014 - 125th Birth Anniversary

Sonia Gandhi's Speech on the occasion

Aaj Tak

Rahul Gandhi's Speech on the occasion

Aaj Tak

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India was born at Allahabad on 14 November 1889. He parents were Motilal Nehru and Swarup Rani. From the age of 15 to 23 Jawaharlal studied in England at Harrow, Cambridge and the Inner Temple. He  returned to India in 1912.

After returning to India in August 1912, Nehru enrolled himself as an advocate of the Allahabad High Court. But he did not relish the practice of law.  His involvement in nationalist politics gradually replaced his legal practice over a period.

Nehru had developed an interest in Indian politics during his time in Britain. He had attended the  annual session of the Indian National Congress in Patna.  He came forward in support of the Indian civil rights movement in South Africa. He collected funds for the civil rights campaigners led by Mohandas Gandhi in 1913. Later, he further campaigned against the indentured labour and other such discriminations faced by Indians in various British colonies.

During  the First World War, Nehru confessed that he viewed the war with mixed feelings. Nehru had some  sympathy for France, whose culture he greatly admired. During the war, Nehru volunteered for the St John Ambulance and worked as one of the provincial secretaries of the organisation in Allahabad. Nehru spoke out against the censorship acts passed by the British government in India.
Nehru emerged from the war years as a leader whose political views were considered radical.  Nehru had spoken "openly of the politics of non-cooperation, of the need of resigning from honorary positions under the government and of not continuing the futile politics of representation. Nehru, however, was not satisfied with the pace of the national movement. He became involved with aggressive nationalists leaders who were demanding Home Rule for Indians.

In 1915. anti-moderate leaders such as Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak took the opportunity to call for a national movement for Home Rule. But, in 1915, the proposal was rejected. Annie Besant nevertheless formed a league for advocating Home Rule in 1916; and Tilak, on his release from a prison term, had in April 1916 formed his own league. Nehru joined both leagues but worked especially for the former. He remarked later that Besant had a very powerful influence on me in my childhood and that continued during his early days in politics. Hindu-Muslim unity was taken up as an important issue with the Lucknow pact at the annual meeting of the Congress in December 1916.  Nehru welcomed the unity initiative  between the two Indian communities.

Home rule league under the leadership of Annie Besant voiced a demand for self-government, the status of a Dominion within the British Empire as enjoyed by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time. Nehru actively participated in the movement and rose to become secretary of Besant's All India Home Rule League. In June 1917 Besant was arrested and interned by the British government. The Congress and various other Indian organisation threatened to launch protests if she were not set free. The British government was subsequently forced to release Besant and make significant concessions after a period of intense protests.

The first big national involvement of Nehru came at the onset of the non-co-operation movement in 1920. He led the movement in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). Nehru was arrested  in 1921, and was released a few months later. In the rift that formed within the Congress following the sudden closure of the non-co-operation movement after the Chauri Chaura incident, Nehru did not join the Swaraj Party formed by his father Motilal Nehru and CR Das.

Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister of Independent India

Jawaharlal Nehru was the Prime Minister of India for 17 long years right from independence and can rightly be called the architect of modern India as he worked as the chairman of planning commission and came out with number of five year plans.  He encouraged Panjayati Raj institutions.

With the foresight of a statesman he created institutions like Planning Commission, National Science Laboratories and laid the foundation of a vast public sector for developing infrastructure for industrial growth. He also wanted the  the private sector to grow. He emphasized the need of planned development. Nehru gave a clear direction to India’s role in the comity of nations with the policy of non alignment and the principle of Panchsheel, the five principles of peaceful coexistence at a time when the rivalries of cold-war were driving the humanity to its doom. His vision was that of extensive application of science and technology and industrialisation for better living and liberation from the clutches of poverty, superstition and ignorance. Education to him was very important for internal freedom and fearlessness.  He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1955. He never forgot India's great cultural heritage and liked to combine tradition with modernity.

Jawaharlal was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books like ‘The Discovery of India’, ‘Glimpses of World History’, his autobiography, ‘towards Freedom' (1936) ran nine editions in the first year alone. Emotional sensitivity and intellectual passion infused his writings, giving them unusual appeal & topicality.

Pandit Nehru loved children and they call him affectionately as Chacha Nehru. His birthday is observed as Children's Day. He believed that children are the future of the nation. Nehru passed away in 1964.

Jawaharlal Nehru Biography Hindi

Nehru - A Brief Biography

Economic Philosophy of Jawaharlal Nehru

Anil Kumar Thakur, Debes Mukhopadhayay
Deep and Deep Publications, 01-Jan-2010 - 262 pages
Papers presented at the 91st Annual Conference of the Indian Economic Association, held at Udaipur during 27-29 December 2008.

Jawaharlal Nehru
Frank Moraes
Jaico Publishing House, 01-Jan-2007 - 540 pages
Jawaharlal Nehru has won the admiration of the people of India and the world as a national leader, as a writer, as a humanist etc. Anyone who wishes to understand the controversial aspects of his personality would do well to peruse this biography. This work also traces the history of the freedom movement in India.Nehru was the most remarkable statesman, a man who enthralled everyone with his magical personality; a leader who was literally hero-worshipped during his time and an orator of the order, who, once he climbed the rostrum and took the microphone in his hand, became one with the audience and held them spellbound.

Nehru: The Invention of India

Shashi Tharoor
Arcade Publishing, 2003 - 282 pages

From Shashi Tharoor, eminent United Nations diplomat and Minister in Government of India. It is an incisive new biography of the great secularist, Jawaharlal Nehru, who - alongside his spiritual father, Mahatma Gandhi - led the movement for India's independence from British rule and ushered his newly independent country into the modern world.
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Jawaharlal Nehru, a Biography

Sankar Ghose
Allied Publishers, 1993 - 353 pages
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Jawaharlal Nehru on Productivity in Agriculture in India

See the references below.
Jawaharlal Nehru: A Study in Ideology and Social Change
Rajendra Prasad Dube
Mittal Publications, 1988 - India - 288 pages
Political and social views of Jawaharlal Nehru, 1889-1964, Indian statesman; includes account of Indian politics and government, chiefly of 1919-1947.

Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography Volume 3 1956-1964
By Sarvepalli Gopal

Economic Policy of Jawaharlal Nehru
By Neerja Maheshwari

Economic Philosophy of Jawaharlal Nehru
edited by Anil Kumar Thakur, Debes Mukhopadhayay

Updated 12 March 2017, 5 December 2014

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