Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Bharat Ratna Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya - Biography

Date of Birth  25 December 1861

He served as Congress President for four times- in 1909 (Lahore), in 1918 (Delhi), in 1930 (Delhi) and in 1932 (Calcutta). He established Benaras Hindu University. He took a leading part in formation Hindu Maha Sabha also.

Madan Mohan Malviya was born in Allahabad, North-Western Provinces, India on 25 December 1861,in a Sri Gaud Brahmin family to Pandit Brij Nath and Moona Devi. His ancestors, originally hailed from Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and hence came to be known as 'Malviyas'. Their original surname were Vyas. His father was  a learned man in Sanskrit scriptures, and used to recite the Bhagvat Katha to earn a living.

Malviya started his schooling at Hardeva's Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala, where he completed his primary education and then joined school run by Vidha Vardini Sabha. He then joined Allahabad Zila School (Allahabad District School). As a student,  he started writing poems under the pen name Makarand which were published in journals and magazines.

Malviya matriculated in 1879 from the Muir Central College, now known as Allahabad University. He was provided a monthly scholarship to  complete his B.A. at the University of Calcutta.

In July 1884 Madan Mohan Malviya started his career as an assistant master at the Govt High School in Allahabad. In December 1886, Malaviya attended the 2nd Indian National Congress session in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Naoroji, where he spoke on the issue of representation in Councils. His address impressed Dadabhai. Raja Rampal Singh, ruler of Kalakankar estate near Allahabad, who started a Hindi weekly Hindustan  was looking for a suitable editor and he offered the job to Malaviya. Thus in July 1887, he left his school job and joined as the editor of the nationalist weekly and remained in the post  for two and a half years, He left the job and joined L.L.B. course. During his legal study period,  he was offered co-editorship of The Indian Union, an English daily. After finishing his law degree, he started practising law at Allahabad District Court in 1891, and moved to Allahabad High Court by December 1893.

Malviya became the President of the Indian National Congress in 1909 and 1918. To redeem his resolve to serve the cause of education and social-service he renounced his well established practice of law in 1911, for ever.  But when 177 freedom fighters were convicted to be hanged in the Chouri-choura case he appeared before the court, despite his vow and got acquitted 156 freedom fighters. In April 1911, Annie Besant met Malaviya and they decided to work for a common Hindu University at Varanasi.  Banaras Hindu University (BHU) was established in 1916,  under the legislation, 'B.H.U. Act 1915'. He functioned as its vice chancellor till 1939, and was succeeded by Professor Sarvepalli  Radhakrishnan,

He was a moderate leader and opposed the separate electorates for Muslims under the Lucknow Pact of 1916. The "Mahamana" title was conferred to him by Mahatma Gandhi. He remained a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1912 and when in 1919 it was converted to the Central Legislative Assembly he remained its member as well, till 1926.  Malaviya was an important figure in the Non-cooperation movement. However, he was opposed to the politics of appeasement and the participation of Congress in the Khilafat movement.

In 1928 he joined Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawaharlal Nehru and many others in protesting against the Simon Commission, which had been set up by the British to consider India's future. Just as the "Buy British" campaign was sweeping England, he issued, on 30 May 1932, a manifesto urging concentration on the "Buy Indian" movement in India. Malaviya was a delegate at the First Round Table Conference in 1930. During the Civil Disobedience Movement, he was arrested on 25 April 1932, along with 450 other Congress volunteers in Delhi, only a few days after he was appointed the President of Congress.

In protest against the Communal Award which sought to provide separate electorates for minorities, Malaviya along with Madhav Shrihari Aney left the Congress and started the Congress Nationalist Party . The party contested the 1934 elections to the central legislature and won 12 seats.

Hindu Ideals and Service to Hindu Religion :

Malaviya had firm grounding in the tenets of Hindu Dharma. He worked to propagate Hindu Dharma and its ideals. A few examples of his participation in religion support  from his early years were: 1) worked as the Secretary of ‘Prayaga Hindu Samaj’ (in 1880), 2) active part in organizing the ‘Madhya Bharat Hindu Samaj Conference’ at Allahabad (in 1885), which discussed about the social good and the welfare of the nation. 3) association and lectures on Hinduism and Indian Culture in ‘Bharat Dharma Mahamandal’, Haridwar (from 1887 to 1902), 4) organizing a conference of ‘Sanatana Dharma Mahasabha’ (Prayag Kumbh in 1906), and in 1936, 5) President of the Education Committee for 10 years of ‘Rishikul Brahmacharya Ashram’ (started in 1906 by Pt Durgadutt Sharma).

Hindu Mahasabha

Madan Mohan Malaviya presided over the Punjab Hindu Sabha's first session in Lahore in 1909 during 21 and 22 October. All India Hindu Maha Sabha was launched in 1915 in UP. Pandit Malaviya had a leading role in it.

Malviyaji breathed his last on November 12, 1946,

Books on Shri Madan Mohan Malaviya Available in BHU Library. Some of them can be downloaded

University Founder Collection (Books)

Title Author
भारती राजनीतिक चिन्तन :मदन मोहन मालवीय मनोज कुमार सिंह
शैलेश कुमार चौधरी
महामना मदन मोहन मालवीय : जीवन और नेतृत्व मुकुट बिहारी लाल [ Full Text ]
महामना मालवीय और हिन्दी पत्रकारिता लक्ष्मीशंकर व्यास
Builders of modern India series : Madan Mohan Malaviya Sitaram Chaturvedi
Extension lectures 1962-63
In the Spirit of Mahamana ..... Vol. I
Mahamana malaviyaji birth centenary commemoration volume 25th dec. 1961 Nand Lal Singh
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Shiv Gajrani and S Ram (Editors)
पंडित मदनमोहन मालवीय
भारत-भूषण महामना पं. मदन मोहन मालवीय : जीवन एवं व्यक्तित्व उमेश दत्त तिवारी
महामना के प्रेरक प्रसंगः संस्मरण उमेश दत्त तिवारी (संपादक)
महामना के भाषण उमेश दत्त तिवारी (संपादक)
महामना के लेख उमेश दत्त तिवारी (संपादक)
महामना के विचार एक चयन अवधेश प्रधान (संपादक)
महामना पं. मदन मोहन मालवीय : संक्षिप्त जीवन परिचय उमेश दत्त तिवारी

महामना मदनमोहन मालवीय अशोक कौशिक
महामना श्री पण्डित मदनमोहन जी मालवीय के लेख और भाषण वासुदेवशरण [ Full Text ]
मालवीयजी महाराज की छाया में अट्ठारह वर्ष शिवधनी सिंह [ Full Text ]
मालवीय जी के सपनों का भारत ईश्वर प्रसाद वर्मा
Inspiring episodes on Mahamana Pt Madan Mohan Malaviya: an architect of modern India compiled by U D Tiwari
Madan Mohan Malaviya : The man & his Ideology S. R. Bakshi
Madan Mohan Malviya ke rajnitik vichar: ak samikshatmak adhyayan Priti Pathak
Malaviya commemoration volume
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya : A socio - political study S. L.Gupta
Mahamana Malaviya Ji from the "Torchbearers"
V. A. Sundaram [ Full Text ]
Badrinath Temple : Question of Transfer Madan Mohan Malaviya [ Full Text ]
Homage to Malaviya Ji V. A. Sundaram [ Full Text ]
Mahamana Malaviyaji Birth Centenary Commemoration Volume, 25 December, 1961 [ Full Text]
महामना पं. मदन मोहन मालवीय की जीवनी वेंकटेश नारायण तिवारी [ Full Text ]
महामना मालवीयजी यमुना प्रसाद श्रीवास्तव [ Full Text ]
महामना पंडित मदनमोहन मालवीय सीताराम चतुर्वेदी [ Full Text ]
काशी हिन्दू विश्वविद्यालय के संस्थापक प. मदन मोहन मालवीयजी का धर्मोपदेश [ Full Text ]
Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya (An Historical Biography) Volume I Parmanand [ Full Text ]
Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya (An Historical Biography) Volume II Parmanand [ Full Text ]
A Criticism of Montagu-Chelmsford Proposals of Indian Constitutional Reform Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya [ Full Text ]
नागरी : मालवीय स्मृति अंक महावीर सिंह गहलोत (संपादक) [ Full Text ]
Pandit M. M. Malaviya's Statement on Repression in India upto April 20, 1932 [ Full Text ]

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and His Philosophy of Education

Hindu Mahasabha in Colonial North India - Prabhu Bapu
Revised version of doctoral dissertation

1 comment:

  1. There was a news report saying that Historian Rama Chandra Guha criticized giving Bharat Ratna award to Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. After reading his biography, there is no doubt that he deserves Bharat Ratna award. But should he be given the award by this government? Why not Bal Gangadhar Tilak? Many freedom fighters deserve Bharat Ratna awards. Even without those awards they are regarded as great national leaders. Madan Mohan Malaviya was chosen by this government that represents a different ideology as he is a symbol for their ideology. He presided over the first meeting of Hindu Mahasabha. The rise of BJP to power for the fourth time in post independent India shows that the society has accepted the rationale of their argument. Of course, still the society wants them to develop a peaceful multireligious India where everyone can prosper and live happily.

    Of course, we also have to recognize that persons belonging to other ideologies and political parties keep criticizing the actions of the present government and the party in power for its actions in the light of their ideological focus.